World No Tobacco Day 2017!

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May 31 is World No Tobacco Day, an annual awareness day to highlight the health risks associated with tobacco use.  Tobacco use kills more than 7 million people around the world each year, and that number is predicted to grow unless anti-tobacco actions are increased. It causes many types of cancer, as well as heart disease, stroke, lung disease, and other health problems.

Bentham Open Publishers is in the forefront in creating awareness about this through the research in the journal:

Open Medicine Journal

Recently Published Article – “Changes in Isokinetic Muscle Strength in Adolescent Soccer Players after 10 Weeks of Pre-Season Training”

Journal: The Open Sports Sciences Journal

Author(s): Michal Lehnert, Petr Stastny, James J. Tufano, Pavel Stolfa

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Abstract

Background:

During soccer-specific movements, the strength of knee extensors and flexors is of great importance and achieving certain strength ratios between the two has been identified as an important parameter for reducing the risk of soft tissue injuries around the knee.

Objective:

The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in isokinetic strength of the knee flexors and extensors and their strength ratios in elite adolescent soccer players.

Methods:

Before and after 10 weeks of standard pre-season soccer training with progressive eccentric hamstring exercises, the players (n=18; age 17.1±0.4 years) participated in isokinetic testing to assess concentric and eccentric peak torque at 60°·s-1.

Results:

After 10 weeks of training, the peak eccentric torque of the non-dominant quadriceps increased (p=0.018; ω=0.24). Additionally, the average eccentric work increased in the dominant hamstrings (p=0.007; ω=0.23), dominant quadriceps (p=0.02; ω=0.31), non-dominant hamstrings (p=0.003; ω=0.25 and non-dominant quadriceps (p=0.01; ω=0.37). Lastly, the isokinetic functional ratio (eccentric hamstrings-to-concentric quadriceps) increased in favor of eccentric hamstring strength in the non-dominant limb (p=0.04; ω=0.31).

Conclusion:

The results of the study indicate that pre-season training induced suboptimal changes in the isokinetic strength of the knee flexors and extensors in elite adolescent soccer players. However, the lack of injuries combined with an apparent lack of preparedness explained by slow velocity isokinetic testing indicates that future research should investigate other forms of strength testing to determine soccer-specific preparedness such as isokinetic dynamometry at higher speeds (i.e. 180°.s-1or 240°.s-1) and traditional weight-room testing such as 1RM tests.

To access this article, please visit: https://benthamopen.com/ABSTRACT/TOSSJ-10-27

Recently Published Article – “Position Specific Changes in Body Composition, Hydration Status and Metabolism During Preseason Training Camp and Nutritional Habits of Division III Football Players”

Journal: The Open Sports Sciences Journal

Author(s): Andrew R. Jagim, Glenn A. Wright, Jacob Kisiolek, Margaret T. Jones, Jonathan M. Oliver

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Abstract

Background:

To what extent pre-season training camp may impact body composition and metabolism in collegiate football players is unknown.

Objective:

The purpose of this study was to assess changes in body composition, dietary habits and metabolism following pre-season training in Division III American football players.

Methods:

Seventeen Division III football players (Ht: 1.80±0.6 m; BM: 99.1±60.1 kg; FFM: 79.7±8.6 kg; BF%: 19.3±8.6%) had their body composition and resting energy expenditure (REE) assessed in a fasted state (>12 hr.) before and upon completion of pre-season training. Pre-season training consisted of 14 days of intense training.

Results:

Linemen had a higher body mass, fat-free mass (FFM), and fat mass likely contributing to the higher REE (p < 0.01). A main effect for time was observed regarding changes in FFM (p<0.001) and body fat % (p = 0.024). A significant interaction was observed for FFM with linemen experiencing a greater reduction in FFM (-1.73±0.37 vs. -0.43±0.74 kg; p<0.001). Linemen (L) experienced a greater reduction in REE compared to non-linemen (NL) (L: -223.0±308.4 vs. NL: 3.27±200.1 kcals; p=0.085) albeit not statistically significant. Non-linemen consumed a higher amount of daily calories (p=0.036), carbohydrates (p=0.046), and protein (p=0.024) when expressed relative to body mass.

Conclusion:

The greater size in linemen prior to pre-season likely contributed to their higher REE. However, the multiple training bouts appeared to reduce REE in linemen, which may have been driven by the observed losses in FFM and low protein intake. Further, pre-season training increased body fat % in all players.

To access this article, please visit: https://benthamopen.com/ABSTRACT/TOSSJ-10-17

Blog ::: Cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular disease also named as heart disease involves many complications that are directly related to heart and blood vessels. These heart diseases refer to any sickness that upsets the cardiovascular system, primarily vascular diseases of kidney and brain, arterial disease and cardiac disease.

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Whenever  an individual is diagnosed with any of the cardiovascular diseases, they could possibly be treated in numerous different ways that includes; Reducing the amount of cholesterol and fat intake, daily exercising,  by controlling the diet and the last and most significant course of  action would be a drug therapy.

The scope and diversity of cardiovascular drugs have improved immensely in the early years, and several newfangled drugs are being rectified on a yearly basis.

In the era of 1950’s, the effective and successful oral diuretics became accessible and rapidly altered the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. In mid 60’s, a course of agents termed as beta blockers or beta antagonists was discovered to treat numerous types of conditions that includes angina, anxiety, heart attack, hypertension and migraine.

The decade of 1990 brought about many innovations to treat the heart patients more effectively. These  innovations led to the most important changes in the ability of physicians to treat the patients with angina and hypertension.

Recently Published Article – “High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) Stability Indicating Method for the Determination of Bromazepam Via its Copper (II) Chelates”

Journal: Open Pharmaceutical Sciences Journal

Author(s): Assefa Takele, Abdel-Maaboud I. Mohamed Attaya, Ariaya Hymete, Melisew Tadele Alula

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Abstract

Introduction:

Bromazepam is hydrolyzed in acidic aqueous solution leading to a series of degradation products. The rate of acidic hydrolysis is believed to be dependent on the state of protonation of the pyridyl and azomethine nitrogen atoms. Stability test is important in pharmaceutical industry to provide evidence on how the quality of an active substance or pharmaceutical product varies with time under the influence of a variety of environmental factors.

Objective:

The aim of the study was to develop a simple stability indicating method for the determination of bromazepam.

Method:

Bromazepam solution was prepared and forced degradation of bromazepam was performed under acid hydrolysis using sulphuric acid. High performance liquid chromatography determination of pure and degraded bromazepam and bromazepam-copper (II) complex was performed using reversed phase octyl C-8 column under isocratic conditions and the chromatographic conditions were set as follows; the flow rate of the mobile phase was 1.5 mL/min; injection volume was 10 μL, column temperature was 30oC and the detector wavelength being 309 nm.

Results:

Bromazepam, its degradation product and bromazepam chelated with copper (II) were determined using the developed mobile phase with flow rate of 1.5 mL/min. Good separation with sharp peak, minimum tailing and retention time repeatability was obtained. The rate order, rate constant and half-life of degradation were also determined, and it was observed that the degradation reaction follows the first order kinetics.

Conclusion:

Chromatographic separation of bromazepam chelated with copper (II) was achieved and the method can be further used in drug manufacturing quality control.

To access this article, please visit: https://benthamopen.com/ABSTRACT/PHARMSCI-4-32

Recently Published Article – “Improvement in Dissolution of Bosentan Monohydrate by Solid Dispersions Using Spray Drying Technique”

Journal: Open Pharmaceutical Sciences Journal

Author(s): Pankaj V. Dangre, Vikesh B. Sormare, Mangesh D. Godbole

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Abstract

Background:

Bosentan monohydrate (BM), a dual endothelin receptor antagonist, is indicated for the treatment of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). It is poorly soluble in water, and having absolute bioavailability of 50%.

Objective:

The aim of the present work is to develop and evaluate the solid dispersions (SD) of a poorly water soluble drug bosentan monohydrate (BM).

Method:

Solid dispersions (SDs) systems of BM were prepared with Hydroxy propyle β-cyclodextrin (HPβ-CD) and Polyethylene glycol (PEG-4000) polymers using a spray drying technique.

Result:

The significant rise in a saturation solubility 174.23±1.36 mg/mL; and drug dissolution 95.11±1.22%; was observed with optimized formulation (SD 6). The solid state characterization of optimized formulation (SD 6) by SEM, DSC, and XRPD revealed the absence of crystalline nature of BM in solid dispersion. High dissolution rate of solid dispersion (SD 6) compared with pure drug indicated the increase in dissolution characteristics.

Conclusion:

In conclusion, our studies illustrated that spray drying technique could be useful large scale producing method to prepare the solid dispersion of bosentan with HP β-CD, which can improve the solubility as well as stability of the formulation.

To access this article, please visit: https://benthamopen.com/ABSTRACT/PHARMSCI-4-23

Recently Published Article – “Time-to-Boundary Function to Study the Development of Upright Stance Control in Children”

Journal: The Open Biomedical Engineering Journal 

Author(s): Carmen D’Anna, Maurizio Schmid, Andrea Scorza, Salvatore A. Sciuto, Luisa Lopez, Silvia Conforto

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Abstract

Background:

The development of postural control across the primary school time horizon is a complex process, which entails biomechanics modifications, the maturation of cognitive ability and sensorimotor organization, and the emergence of anticipatory behaviour. Postural stability in upright stance has been thus object of a multiplicity of studies to better characterize postural control in this age span, with a variety of methodological approaches. The analysis of the Time-to-Boundary function (TtB), which specifies the spatiotemporal proximity of the Centre of Pressure (CoP) to the stability boundaries in the regulation of posture in upright stance, is among the techniques used to better characterize postural stability in adults, but, as of now, it has not yet been introduced in developmental studies. The aim of this study was thus to apply this technique to evaluate the development of postural control in a sample population of primary school children.

Methods:

In this cross-sectional study, upright stance trials under eyes open and eyes closed were administered to 107 healthy children, divided into three age groups (41 for Seven Years’ Group, Y7; 38 for Nine Years’ Group, Y9; 28 for Eleven Years’ Group, Y11). CoP data were recorded to calculate the Time-to-Boundary function (TtB), from which four spatio-temporal parameters were extracted: the mean value and the standard deviation of TtB minima (Mmin, Stdmin), and the mean value and the standard deviation of the temporal distance between two successive minima (Mdist, Stddist).

Results:

With eyes closed, Mmin and Stdmin significantly decreased and Mdist and Stddist increased for the Y7 group, at Y9 Mminsignificantly decreased and Stddist increased, while no effect of vision resulted for Y11. Regarding age groups, Mmin was significantly higher for Y9 than Y7, and Stdmin for Y9 was higher than both Y7 and Y11; Mdist and Stddist resulted higher for Y11 than for Y9.

Conclusion:

From the combined results from the spatio-temporal TtB parameters, it is suggested that, at 9 years, children look more efficient in terms of exploring their limits of stability than at 7, and at 11 the observed TtB behaviour hints at the possibility that, at that age, they have almost completed the maturation of postural control in upright stance, also in terms of integration of the spatio-temporal information.

To access this article, please visit: https://benthamopen.com/ABSTRACT/TOBEJ-11-49

World Hypertension Day 2017!

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World Hypertension Day, observed on the 17th of May, is intended to increase awareness of the condition and issues surrounding it. Awareness of hypertension is considered to be vitally important, due to the number of deaths linked with associated heart attacks, kidney disease and strokes. There is also a perceived lack of awareness about hypertension amongst the general public.

Bentham Open publishes research papers that present new studies related to this particular condition. Find the latest studies in the following journal:

The Open Hypertension Journal