Press Release for EurekAlert! Socioeconomic factors and severity of coronary artery disease

This research article by Dr. Amin Daoulah et al has been published in The Open Cardiovascular Medicine Journal, Volume 11, 2017

Historically, from the 1930’s to the 1950’s, the rate of cardiovascular disease in high-income countries was high. Since the mid-1970’s, the rate of cardiovascular disease has declined in high income countries, possibly due to socioeconomic inequalities and better management of risk factors for coronary heart disease among the wealthy.

We conducted a prospective, multicenter, multiethnic, observation study of consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography at five hospitals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. Our study demonstrates an association between higher income and higher risk for significant coronary artery disease (CAD) and multivessel disease. We speculate that his finding can be explained by poor lifestyle practice in the Gulf region (physical inactivity, sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy diet, tobacco use) and high stressful events related to work and daily activities of living. Previous studies among men linking stress-related health risks with substantial losses in income and wealth help support our speculation. In addition, people living in rural areas and those who are jobless had a higher risk of significant coronary artery disease and multivessel disease, which is in agreement with previous studies.

Our current study failed to show an association between education level and risk of coronary artery disease. This could be explained by a large number of illiterate patients (50%) and those who had secondary education (35%) and not reflect all education levels.

The well-accepted socioeconomic-CAD gradient might not be applicable to all regions of the world. We suggest that the interpretation of socioeconomic status should take into account the differences in risk factors among different ethnicities and cultural differences in individual lifestyles from the same socioeconomic status. Broader studies are needed to explore this association that is in contradiction to what has been previously reported of the link between coronary vascular disease and lower socioeconomic standing.

For more information about the article, please visit https://benthamopen.com/ABSTRACT/TOCMJ-11-47

Recently Published Article – “Corneal Biomechanics in Ectatic Diseases: Refractive Surgery Implications”

Journal: The Open Ophthalmology Journal 

Author(s): Renato Ambrósio, JrFernando Faria CorreiaBernardo LopesMarcella Q. SalomãoAllan LuzDaniel G. DawsonAhmed ElsheikhRiccardo VinciguerraPaolo VinciguerraCynthia J. Roberts

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Abstract

Background:

Ectasia development occurs due to a chronic corneal biomechanical decompensation or weakness, resulting in stromal thinning and corneal protrusion. This leads to corneal steepening, increase in astigmatism, and irregularity. In corneal refractive surgery, the detection of mild forms of ectasia pre-operatively is essential to avoid post-operative progressive ectasia, which also depends on the impact of the procedure on the cornea.

Method:

The advent of 3D tomography is proven as a significant advancement to further characterize corneal shape beyond front surface topography, which is still relevant. While screening tests for ectasia had been limited to corneal shape (geometry) assessment, clinical biomechanical assessment has been possible since the introduction of the Ocular Response Analyzer (Reichert Ophthalmic Instruments, Buffalo, USA) in 2005 and the Corvis ST (Oculus Optikgeräte GmbH, Wetzlar, Germany) in 2010. Direct clinical biomechanical evaluation is recognized as paramount, especially in detection of mild ectatic cases and characterization of the susceptibility for ectasia progression for any cornea.

Conclusions:

The purpose of this review is to describe the current state of clinical evaluation of corneal biomechanics, focusing on the most recent advances of commercially available instruments and also on future developments, such as Brillouin microscopy.

 To access this article, please visit: https://benthamopen.com/ABSTRACT/TOOPHTJ-11-176

Team Sports Make You Healthy!

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Man has always been a social animal wanting to do things together. It was essential to form teams while hunting, eating and taking refuge, as it helped make a bigger kill, get better dwellings and keep safe. This phenomenon has been carried all the way till today and will go into the future as well, as we can predict. The same reflects in our other activities, for instance in sports. We love to play team games where everyone takes a distinct role and strives to achieve the same goal.

We know that team games are fun indeed, but are there any other benefits of it? Let’s have a look:

  1. It helps develop confidence as you get the chance to display your skills and use certain authority over your teammates. Even if you are a junior member, you still try to get a say. When you achieve something in the team this proves a vital confidence booster for you.
  2. Relationship building is an important benefit. Team members learn to understand each other personally and in their respective roles. They respect the strengths and weaknesses of one another and figure out where each fits in the team. These relations extend outside of the game also and may last for a long time.
  3. Team sports teach respect. Players have to follow certain rules and honor what the game demands. They have to respect their mates, leader, opponents, referees, audience and everyone involved.
  4. The sense of accomplishment and sharing it with the team is special feeling. It makes you strong mentally and physically as well. Your mind and body tend to regulate hormones that make you stronger with achievements and enjoying them.
  5. Team sports enhance strategy making and attitude to fight for winning.

There are many other benefits, so keep playing!

For the latest research studies on sports, read the journal The Open Sports Sciences Journal.

Recently Published Article – “MiR-9 Promotes Apoptosis Via Suppressing SMC1A Expression in GBM Cell Lines”

Journal: Current Chemical Genomics and Translational Medicine

Author(s): Yong ZuZhichuan ZhuMin LinDafeng XuYongjun LiangYueqian WanZhengdong QiaoTing CaoDan YangLili GaoPengpeng JinPeng ZhangJianjun FuJing Zheng

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Abstract

Objective:

Glioblastomas multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant brain cancer, which presented vast genomic variation with complicated pathologic mechanism.

Method:

MicroRNA is a delicate post-transcriptional tuner of gene expression in the organisms by targeting and regulating protein coding genes. MiR-9 was reported as a significant biomarker for GBM patient prognosis and a key factor in regulation of GBM cancer stem cells. To explore the effect of miR-9 on GBM cell growth, we over expressed miR-9 in U87 and U251 cells. The cell viability decreased and apoptosis increased after miR-9 overexpression in these cells. To identify the target of miR-9, we scanned miR-9 binding site in the 3’UTRs region of expression SMC1A (structural maintenance of chromosomes 1A) genes and designed a fluorescent reporter assay to measure miR-9 binding to this region. Our results revealed that miR-9 binds to the 3’sUTR region of SMC1A and down-regulated SMC1A expression.

Result:

Our results indicated that miR-9 was a potential therapeutic target for GBM through triggering apoptosis of cancer cells.

 To access this article, please visit: https://benthamopen.com/ABSTRACT/CCGTM-11-31

Recently Published Article – “Isoflurane but not Fentanyl Causes Apoptosis in Immature Primary Neuronal Cells”

Journal: The Open Anesthesiology Journal 

Author(s): Monika BernsAnna Christine WolterChristoph BührerStefanie EndesfelderThoralf Kerner

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Abstract

Background:

Anaesthetics are widely used in new-borns and preterm infants, although it is known that they may adversely affect the developing brain.

Objective:

We assessed the impact of the volatile anaesthetic, isoflurane, and the intravenous analgesic, fentanyl, on immature and mature embryonic neuronal cells.

Methods:

Primary neuronal cultures from embryonic rats (E18) cultured for 5 (immature) or 15 days (mature) in vitro (DIV), respectively, were exposed to isoflurane (1.5 Vol.%) or fentanyl (0.8 – 200 ng/ml) for 24 hours. Experiments were repeated in the presence of the γ-amino butyric acid-A (GABAA) receptor antagonists, bicuculline or picrotoxin (0.1 mmol/l), or the pancaspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk (20 nmol/l). Cell viability was assessed by methyltetrazolium (MTT) metabolism or lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release.

Results:

Isoflurane reduced cell viability significantly in primary neuronal cells cultured for 5 DIV (Δ MTT -28 ±13%, Δ LDH +143 ±15%). Incubation with bicuculline, picrotoxin or zVAD-fmk protected the cells mostly from isoflurane toxicity. After 15 DIV, cell viability was not reduced by isoflurane. Viability of primary neurons cultured for 5 DIV did not change with fentanyl over the wide range of concentrations tested.

Conclusion:

Immature primary neurons may undergo apoptosis following exposure to isoflurane but are unaffected by fentanyl. Mature primary neurons were not affected by isoflurane exposure.

 To access this article, please visit: https://benthamopen.com/ABSTRACT/TOATJ-11-39#aff1

Recently Published Article – “Non-invasive Raman Spectroscopy and Quantitative Real-Time PCR Distinguish Among Undifferentiated Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Redifferentiated Nucleus Pulposus Cells and Chondrocytes In Vitro”

Journal: The Open Biomedical Engineering Journal

Author(s): Franziska EhlickeNatascha KösterDenise SalzigPeter Czermak

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Abstract

Background:

The most common cause of lower back pain is the pathological degeneration of the nucleus pulposus (NP). Promising NP regeneration strategies involving human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) would require specific markers to confirm successful differentiation into the NP lineage and to distinguish the articular cartilage (AC).

Objective:

We sought specific NP mRNA markers that are upregulated in native NP cells but not in dedifferentiated NP cells, undifferentiated hMSCs or chondrocytes. We also considered the suitability of non-invasive Raman spectroscopy to distinguish among these classes of cells.

Method:

We used quantitative real-time PCR and Raman spectroscopy to analyse undifferentiated hMSCs in monolayers and embedded in hydrogels, and compared the results with dedifferentiated and redifferentiated human NP and AC cells.

Results:

The redifferentiation of NP cells induced the expression of annexin A3 (ANXA3), collagen type II (COL2) and proteoglycan mRNAs, whereas the redifferentiation of AC cells only induced proteoglycan expression. Redifferentiated NP cells expressed higher levels of ANXA3COL2, paired box 1 (PAX1) and OCT4 mRNA than redifferentiated AC cells. Redifferentiated NP cells and undifferentiated hMSC-TERT cells expressed similar amount of OCT4 mRNA, indicating that only ANXA3COL2 and PAX1 are promising markers for redifferentiated NP cells. Raman spectra clearly differed among the three cell types and highlighted their differentiation status.

Conclusion:

We recommend ANXA3COL2 and PAX1 as markers to determine the success of hMSC-based differentiation to regenerate NP cells. Raman spectroscopy can be used to determine cell type and differentiation status especially in the context of clinical trials.

 To access this article, please visit: https://benthamopen.com/ABSTRACT/TOBEJ-11-72

 

Recently Published Article – “Effects of Triton X-100 and PEG on the Catalytic Properties and Thermal Stability of Lipase from Candida Rugosa Free and Immobilized on Glyoxyl-Agarose”

Journal: The Open Biochemistry Journal

Author(s): Rafael F. PernaPoliana C. TiossoLetícia M. SgobiAngélica M.S. VieiraMarcelo F. VieiraPaulo W. TardioliCleide M.F. SoaresGisella M Zanin

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Abstract

Background:

Candida rugosa Lipase (CRL) shows a very low alkaline stability that comprises its immobilization on glyoxyl-agarose, which requires pH above 10. In this way, an adaptation from the original method was used; an enzyme solution at pH 7 was slowly added at a suspension of glyoxyl-agarose prepared in bicarbonate buffer, pH 10. This change of protocol was enough for allowing the preparation of derivatives actives of CRL on glyoxyl-agarose and verifying the effect of this modified procedure on the properties of the immobilized enzyme. The effect of the additives Triton-X-100 and polyethylene glycol (PEG) on the enzymatic activity recovery and immobilized enzyme stability was evaluated.

Methods:

The glyoxyl-agarose support was prepared by etherification of 6% agarose beads with glycidol and further oxidation with sodium periodate. CRL was immobilized covalently on glyoxyl-agarose support in the absence and presence of 1% (w/v) Triton-X-100 or 5 g L-1 polyethylene glycol (PEG). The lipolysis activity of the free and immobilized enzyme was determined at 37ºC and pH 7.0, using p-nitrophenyl palmitate (p-NPP) as substrate. Profiles of temperature-activity (37-65ºC, pH 7.0) and pH-activity (6.0-9.5, 37ºC) were evaluated as well as thermal (45ºC and pH 8.0) and operational (15 min batches of p-NPP hydrolysis at 50ºC and pH 8.0) stabilities of free and immobilized CRL.

Results:

Using a single modification of the original protocol, the CRL poorly stable under alkaline conditions could be immobilized on glyoxyl-agarose in its active conformation (recovered activity varying from 10.3 to 30.4%). Besides, the presence of a detergent (Triton-X-100) and an enzyme stabilizer (PEG) contributed to the preparation of more active and more stable biocatalysts, respectively. CRL immobilized on glyoxyl-agarose in the presence of PEG was around 5 times more stable than the free CRL and around 3 times more stable than the CRL immobilized on glyoxyl-agarose in absence of PEG. The higher stability of the CRL-glyoxyl derivative prepared in the presence of PEG allowed its reuse in four successive 15 min-batches of p-nitrophenyl palmitate hydrolysis at 50ºC and pH 8.0.

Conclusion:

The technique of immobilizing enzymes covalently on glyoxyl-agarose showed promising results for Candida rugosa lipase (CRL). The derivatives prepared in the presence of the additives retained two to three times more activity than those prepared in the absence of additives. The enzyme immobilized in presence of PEG was about three times more stable than the enzyme immobilized in absence of this additive. Maximum catalytic activity of the immobilized CRL (in absence of additives) was observed in a temperature 10ºC above that for the free enzyme and the pH of the maximum activity was maintained in the range 6.5-7.5 for free and immobilized CRL.

 To access this article, please visit: https://benthamopen.com/ABSTRACT/TOBIOCJ-11-66#aff2