Norman S. Allen
Chemistry and Environmental Sciences
Manchester Metropolitan University
School of Public Health
University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, MI
Journal: The Open Ecology Journal
Author(s): Marina V. Slukovskaya, Lyubov A. Ivanova, Irina P. Kremenetskaya, Tamara T. Gorbacheva, Svetlana V. Drogobuzhskaya, Vladimir V. Lashchuk, Evgenia F. Markovskaya
This work has explored the possibility of applying mining waste-based ameliorants for the remediation of soil that has been transformed by copper-nickel smelter emissions by means of forming artificial phytocenosis.
The aim of our work was to propose, develop and approbate a technique for the preservation of dumps polluted by heavy metals and prevention of their erosion by creating dense grass covers with the use of wastes from mining and processing enterprises to form a supporting substrate for herbaceous plants.
The vegetative cover was cultivated on a supporting medium, consisting of mining waste, with a hydroponic vermiculite substrate and a mix of graminaceous plant seeds, indigenous to the study area and resistant to heavy metal pollution. The mining wastes, used in the experiment, contained acid-neutralizing minerals such as calcium and magnesium carbonate and hydrous magnesium silicate.
It is shown that, due to a large pool of Ca and Mg, these mineral substrates are alkaline (pH 8.4 – 9.2) and can perform successfully in optimizing of edaphic conditions for the plant communities grown on industrial barrens. In a pilot experiment without a proposed supporting medium, the plants did not form a stable grass cover and had died out by the beginning of the third growing season, whereas the experimental plots with a proposed supporting medium (waste-based substrate) developed a high-quality grass cover by the end of second vegetation seasons.
The resulting plant communities grown on a proposed supportive medium is find to be resistant to aerotechnogenic pollutants and capable of independent survival, representing the initial stage of progressive succession in the presence of on-going pollution.
To access this article, please visit: https://benthamopen.com/ABSTRACT/TOECOLJ-11-1
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) ranks amongst the top of the most prevalent autoimmune diseases. The cure to this disease hasn’t been found yet but various studies and experiments have shown that eating a certain kind of diet and avoiding some types of food can help reduce inflammation, which is at the core of arthritis.
A healthy diet for reducing inflammation related to RA begins with cutting back on inflammatory foods including sugar and processed food containing highly-saturated fats. Patients often report that their joints feel less sore after they have given up sugar.
The second part is to include foods that decrease inflammation, thus decreasing joint soreness, discomfort and morning aches. The best foods would be fish such as tuna, herring, trout, salmon, and mackerel because they contain Omega-3 fatty acids. Moreover, extra-virgin olive oil and foods containing high levels of fiber such as fruits, vegetables, beans, legumes and whole grains may also help reduce inflammation.
Vegetarian diets also soothe arthritis-related inflammation. Conversely, meats – fried and grilled at high temperatures – have been found to aggravate arthritis inflammation.
So, making a few simple changes to your diet can alleviate the stiffness and inflammation related to arthritis. Dr. Humeira Badsha from Dr. Humeira Badsha Medical Center, Dubai, UAE, has published important research on this topic in the Bentham Open journal, The Open Rheumatology Journal.
To read the research, view: Role of Diet in Influencing Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Activity
Journal: The Open Biomarkers Journal
Author(s): Katarzyna Rygiel
Recent research evidence has revealed that cancer cells contain a subpopulation of cancer stem cells (CSCs) that can remain even after traditional oncology therapies (e.g.: surgical resection of a tumor, radiation therapy (RT), and chemotherapy (ChT)), and can subsequently regenerate the original tumor or metastases, which are resistant to standard anticancer treatments. Such a resistance can be activated in various CSC populations, via different signal transduction pathways.
The signaling pathways (e.g.: NANOG, Wnt/β-catenin, Hedgehog, Notch, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT 3), and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)) play a crucial role in the CSCs, leading to tumorigenesis and metastatic spread. Therefore, their detailed analysis, including innovative biomarkers, is necessary to develop the effective, novel therapies that will specifically target CSCs, in patients with aggressive cancers. This review briefly outlines the concept of CSCs, and key components of CSC dysregulation in the signaling pathways. Furthermore, it describes some innovative strategies, such as: Single-Cell Sequencing (SCS), Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs), Disseminated Tumor Cells (DTCs), cell-free DNA (cfDNA), and circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) that may have critical importance in the detection, early diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of patients with various, difficult to treat malignancies (e.g.: breast or gastrointestinal cancers). It also focuses on some barriers to achieving the clinical management goals (for both patients with cancers and the interdisciplinary treatment teams), as well as suggests some solutions, how to overcome them, in personalized oncology approaches.
To access this article, please visit: https://benthamopen.com/ABSTRACT/TOBIOMJ-8-9
Journal: The Open AIDS Journal
Author(s): Janice Du Mont, Lily Van, Daisy Kosa, Sheila Macdonald
Among 136 women sexually assaulted by a current or former male intimate partner presenting to hospital-based violence treatment centers, 58 (42.6%) received HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (HIV PEP) counseling by a specially trained sexual assault nurse. We identified factors that were associated with receipt of HIV PEP counseling. Those who received counseling were more likely to have been younger than 25 years of age, single, a student, vaginally penetrated, and have received various other services (e.g., STI prophylaxis). They were less likely to have been unemployed. Hospital-based violence treatment centers need to be aware that not all women sexually assaulted by an intimate partner will have the same risk of acquisition of HIV and care needs.
To access this article, please visit: https://benthamopen.com/ABSTRACT/TOAIDJ-12-1
Journal: The Open Rheumatology Journal
Author(s): Humeira Badsha
Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) frequently ask their doctors about which diets to follow, and even in the absence of advice from their physicians, many patients are undertaking various dietary interventions.
However, the role of dietary modifications in RA is not well understood. Several studies have tried to address these gaps in our understanding. Intestinal microbial modifications are being studied for the prevention and management of RA. Some benefits of vegan diet may be explained by antioxidant constituents, lactobacilli and fibre, and by potential changes in intestinal flora. Similarly, Mediterranean diet shows anti-inflammatory effects due to protective properties of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamins, but also by influencing the gut microbiome. Gluten-free and elemental diets have been associated with some benefits in RA though the existing evidence is limited. Long-term intake of fish and other sources of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are protective for development of RA. The benefits of fasting, anti-oxidant supplementation, flavanoids, and probiotics in RA are not clear. Vitamin D has been shown to influence autoimmunity and specifically decrease RA disease activity. The role of supplements such as fish oils and vitamin D should be explored in future trials to gain new insights in disease pathogenesis and develop RA-specific dietary recommendations.
Specifically more research is needed to explore the association of diet and the gut microbiome and how this can influence RA disease activity.
To access this article, please visit: https://benthamopen.com/ABSTRACT/TORJ-12-19
Journal: The Open Dentistry Journal
Author(s): Amir Reza Rokn, Akram Labibzadeh, Amir Alireza Rasouli Ghohroudi, Ahmad Reza Shamshiri, Somaye Solhjoo
A correct diagnosis and optimal treatment planning is essential for success in implant dentistry. Proper diagnosis of bone quality is an important part of the diagnostic procedure.
The purpose of this study was to correlate the tactile sense of the surgeon in the assessment of bone density to the histomorphometric analysis of bone quality.
In this study, 56 bone samples from 33 patients were harvested from implant sites with trephine drills. The samples were analyzed with Image J software. In the samples following parameters were measured: BV/TV, superficial cortical plate thickness, the number and thickness of haversian canals in cortical bone and the number, thickness and distance of trabecules in cancellous bone. The clinical hardness of bone during drilling was evaluated by surgeon according to Misch. GEE analysis with exchangeable correlation structure and linear model was used to evaluate the relationship between the tactile sense of the surgeon and histomorphometric parameters and all analysis was adjusted for two confounding variables: gender and location.
There were 51.79% implants in D2 samples and 48.21% in D3. Bone classification according to Misch was significantly correlated to distance of trabecules in cancellous bone (P-value=0.05), and shown marginally significant correlation with mean superficial cortical bone thickness (P-value =0.07) and number of haversian canals (P-value =0.005) in cortical bone.
There were differences between our results and others. The authors believed that these differences mainly are because of confounding factors, that in this study were eliminated. The clinical finding during surgery can approximately explain the histologic properties of bone.
It is concluded that tactile sense of the surgeon can exhibit the histologic properties of the bone, and we are able to estimate the healing prognosis of the bone in implant placement.
To access this article, please visit: https://benthamopen.com/ABSTRACT/TODENTJ-12-46