Effectiveness of S-PRG Filler-Containing Toothpaste in Inhibiting Demineralization of Human Tooth Surface

Author: Bennett T. Amaechi

Journal: The Open Dentistry Journal

Abstract

Objectives:

Using an established pH-cycling caries model, the authors evaluated the effectiveness of toothpastes containing Surface Pre-reacted Glass-ionomer filler (S-PRG) in preventing tooth surface demineralization.

Materials and Methods:

210 tooth blocks were randomly assigned to seven experimental groups (30 blocks/group): no treatment (A), and toothpaste containing either NaF (B), 0 wt% S-PRG (C), 1 wt% S-PRG (D), 5 wt% S-PRG (E), 20 wt% S-PRG (F) or 30 wt% S-PRG (G). Groups were subjected to 14-day demineralization for development of early caries lesions using a pH-cycling caries model. Demineralization was assessed using Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence (QLF) and Transverse Microradiography (TMR). All pairwise contrasts (between treatments) were tested using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and then Tukey’s HSD for multiple comparisons. All p-values are considered significant if <0.05.

Results:

With QLF, there was a significant (ANOVA; p<0.001) difference in mean percent fluorescence loss (∆F) observed among the groups. Relative to control, all S-PRG-containing toothpastes significantly (Tukey’s; p<0.0001) inhibited demineralization at varying percentages (48.6%, 61.3%, 67.4% and 69.8% reduction with S-PRG 1%, 5%, 20% and 30% respectively). Demineralization reduction was not significant with either NaF (15.6% reduction) or 0% S-PRG (-2.5% reduction i.e. 2.5% more demineralization than the Control) when compared to control group. Mineral loss assessed using TMR followed a similar trend as fluorescence loss.

Conclusion:

Toothpaste containing S-PRG filler can serve as an effective caries control tool. S-PRG filler-containing dentifrice to be more effective in preventing tooth demineralization than 1100 ppm fluoride provided as sodium fluoride.

TODENTJ-12-811_F1.jpg

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Cone Beam CT-Based Preoperative Volumetric Estimation of Bone Graft Required for Lateral Window Sinus Augmentation, Compared with Intraoperative Findings: A Pilot Study

Author: Nagla’a A. Abdel-Wahed

Abstract

Introduction:

The presence of an atrophic maxilla creates a serious challenge in cases of implant placement, while maxillary sinus pneumatization further complicates the surgery. This pilot study was performed to investigate the validity of two techniques used to estimate the volumes of bone graft material required in cases that included lateral window sinus augmentation.

Materials and Methods:

Cone beam computed tomography was used for preoperative volumetric analysis of the maxillary sinus. The analysis was performed using the manual measurement of sinus dimensions, as well as automated measurements via the segmentation technique. The estimated volumes of required bone graft material were compared with actual intraoperative findings in cases requiring lateral window sinus augmentation. For this pilot study, only 5 patients were selected to be included.

Results:

To achieve 80% power and confidence interval of 95%, the sample size should be 35 patients. The correlation coefficient between the segmented volume and mm3 used was – 0.5332, whereas the coefficient between the manual volume and mm3 used was – 0.6784. Consequently, both results indicate that the two methods have a moderate negative correlation with the mm3 used.

Conclusion:

Performing a similar study with an increased number of patients, according to the calculated sample size, increases the possibility of revealing higher correlation between the methods used to analyze the partial volume of the sinus cavity. The estimated sinus volume of the area of augmentation, obtained by using either manual or segmentation techniques, could be considered as a maximum estimate for the required amount of graft material. Furthermore, the segmentation technique may be valuable in preoperative planning of sinus augmentation, as it reveals the topographic shape and morphology of the sinus.

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Survey of Big Data Role in Smart Grids: Definitions, Applications, Challenges, and Solutions

Author: Mahmoud Ghofrani

Abstract

Objective:

This paper provides a literature review on smart grids and big data. Smart grid refers to technologies used to modernize the energy delivery of traditional power grids, using intelligent devices and big data technologies.

Methods:

The modernization is performed by deploying equipment such as sensors, smart meters, and communication devices, and by invoking procedures such as real-time data processing and big data analysis. A large volume of data with high velocity and diverse variety are generated in a smart grid environment.

Conclusion:

This paper presents definitions and background of smart grid and big data. Current studies and research developments of big data application in smart grids are also introduced. Additionally, big data challenges in smart grid systems such as security and data quality are discussed.

 

TOEEJ-12-86_F1.jpg

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Using Tibia Proximal Cut Autograft in Advanced Varus Knee Deformity in Total Knee Arthroplasty; Outcomes Compared to the Control Group

Author: Aydin Arslan

Abstract

Background:

The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) performed for advanced varus knee deformity, which is performed by using tibia proximal cut bone for the reconstruction of the tibia proximal medial bone defects, with a control group consisting of TKAs which did not need reconstruction.

Methods:

Patients in the present study underwent total knee arthroplasty between 2009 and 2015. 12 patients with advanced varus deformity who had undergone reconstruction with tibia proximal cut autograft and 15 patients who were randomly selected from patients who did not need reconstruction, were compared clinically and radiographically.

Results:

The mean follow-up period of the patients was found to be 73.1 ± 19.7 (36-108) months in the reconstruction group and 73.2 ± 12.3 (39-107) months in the control group. (p> 0.05) In both groups, significant improvement was observed postoperatively. In both groups, there was no evidence of loosening the required revision. WOMAC score was 32.4 ± 13.3 (8-64) in the reconstruction group and 28.9 ± 17.2 (6-70) in the control group at the last control visit. There was no difference between the groups when comparing the WOMAC scores at the last control visit. In the reconstruction group, the Hip-Knee-Ankle (HKA) angle was 26.1 ± 4.9 ° varus preoperatively and 1.3 ± 2.3 ° valgus postoperatively; and in the control group 10.1 ± 2.1 ° varus preoperatively and 2.7 ± 3.4 ° valgus postoperatively. (p> 0.05)

Conclusion:

In the present study, clinical and radiographic results of total knee arthroplasty patients, who suffered from advanced knee varus deformity and whose proximal tibia medial defects were reconstructed by using tibial proximal cut autograft, have been found to be successful when compared to the control group.

TOORTHJ-12-405_F1.jpg

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A Simplified Approach for Analysis and Design of Reinforced Concrete Circular Silos and Bunkers

Author: Muhammad Umair Saleem

Abstract

Background:

Reinforced concrete silos and bunkers are commonly used structures for large storage of different materials. These structures are highly vulnerable when subjected to intense seismic forces. Available guidelines for analysis and design of these structures require special design skills and code procedures.

Objective:

The current study is aimed to elaborate the design procedures from different sources to a unified method, which can be applied to a larger class of reinforced concrete silos. In this study, analysis and design procedures are summarized and presented in a simplified form to make sure the efficient practical design applications of reinforced concrete silos.

Method:

Four different cases of silo design based on the type and weight of stored material were considered for the study. For each case, the silo was designed using given design procedure and modeled using FEM-based computer package. All of the reinforced concrete silos were subjected to gravity, wind and seismic forces.

Results:

After performing the analysis and design of different silos, the bending moment, shear force and axial forces profiles were given for a sample silo. The results obtained from the proposed design procedure were compared with FEM values for different components of silos such as slab, wall and hopper.

Conclusion:

The comparison of tangential and longitudinal forces, bending moments, shear forces and reinforcement ratios of different parts of silos have shown a fair agreement with the FEM model results. It motivates to use the proposed design procedure for an efficient design of reinforced concrete silos.

TOBCTJ-12-234_F2.jpg

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Assessment of Soil Quality in Andosols Using Silvopastoral Systems

Author: Hernán R. B. Rosales
Journal: The Open Agriculture Journal

Abstract

Background:

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of redesign and management upon soil quality variation using three agro-ecosystems: agro-ecosystem A1 (grasses, Alnus acuminata Kunth); agro-ecosystem A2 (grasses, Acacia melanoxylon R. Br.) and agro-ecosystem A3 (Rangeland).

Methods:

The trees were planted along the contour lines in December 2015. The total area was divided into three agro-ecosystems (AES). These consisted of 7.50, 4.64 and 6.25 ha managed with ten to eleven cows in A1, A2 and A3 respectively. The AES were divided into paddocks by means of electric fences. Composite soil samples were evaluated at the baseline and ten months later. Principles of rational grass management were applied with low input sustainable agriculture. The tree population density was 1000 ha-1, planted in double rows, separated two meters apart. The genetic composition of dairy cows was 80 and 20% of Holstein and crossbreed Holstein x Jersey, respectively.

Results:

The effect of interaction between AES x year was not found. The effect of the agro-ecosystems upon the soil quality only showed significant differences (p <0.05) in pH (5.64, 5.68, 5.55); SOM (14.65, 16.11, 16.23); P2O5 (34.67, 19.50, 33.48) and K2O (.16, .19, .12) meq 100 mL-1 to A1, A2 y A3, respectively. On the contrary, the year´s effect showed differences (p <0.05) on chemical variables: NH4 (-83.00 ppm); SOM (-1.91%); P2O5 (-10.79 ppm); K2O (-.04) meq 100 mL-1 and Mg (-.42) meq 100 mL-1, excepted pH (.025) and Ca (1.04) meq 100 mL-1 when it was compared 2015 vs. 2016. It is suggested to continue evaluating the dynamics of soil chemical variables in the subsequent two years to find out the real potential capacity of soil-plant-animal-management interactions to enhance soil quality of Andosols in dairy sector, Carchi province, Ecuador.

TOASJ-12-207_F1 (1)

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Redox State of Human Serum Albumin and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Hemodialysis Patients with Secondary Hyperparathyroidism During Oral Calcitriol Supplementation for Vitamin D

Author: Wesam A. Nasif

Abstract

Background:

Hemodialysis (HD) patients with secondary Hyperparathyroidism (s-HPT) are exposed to increased inflammation and oxidative stress. In HD patients, oxidized albumin is a reliable marker of oxidative stress and its clinical significance has been rarely studied.

Objective:

The objective of this study was to evaluate Cys34 Human Serum Albumin (HSA) as oxidative stress biomarker in HD patients with s-HPT and its relationship with inflammation on bone turnover markers during oral calcitriol supplementation for vitamin D.

Patients and Methods:

Fifteen stable hemodialysis patients with s-HPT (mean age 48.67±8.15, 11 males and 4 females) were used in the experiment to receive calcitriol treatment for 16 weeks (0.25mcg or 0.5 mcg once a day according to serum level of Ca and P for each). The changes in the serum biochemical parameters (Ca, P, ALP, and iPTH), inflammatory markers (CRP and IL-6 levels) and serum oxidative stress condition (SOD, IS and albumin ratio HNA/HMA) were evaluated before and at 8 and 16 weeks of calcitriol treatment. The correlations between those factors were studied.

Results:

All patients responded to oral calcitriol therapy, with a significant decrease in the serum iPTH. The results showed that calcitriol could effectively suppress iPTH secretion with a significant elevation of serum Ca and P but ALP remained unchanged during the study. It can also effectively reduce the inflammatory markers (CRP and IL-6), while increasing the oxidative markers (SOD and IS). Oxidative albumin ratio HNA/HMA showed a significant (p=0.001) reduction after 16 weeks of calcitriol treatment and the redox state of HSA showed a positive prediction for hyperparathyroidism and for inflammation.

Conclusion:

The redox state of HSA could be used as a predictor for monitoring hyperparathyroidism and inflammation during calcitriol treatment by retarding albumin oxidation in HD patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism.

TOMCJ-12-98_F1
Albumin structure; Crystallographic studies stated that albumin HSA a heart-shaped tertiary structure with high α-helical content and 3 homologous domains, each comprised of 2 subdomains. The Cys34 (ORANGE) provides thiol properties conferring antioxidant ability to the protein. From the reduced form (mercaptoalbumin), albumin can be oxidized up to a highly oxidized state (sulfenic/sulfonic acid, known as nonmercaptoalbumin 2) The N-terminal (BLUE) acts as scavenge of free metals usually involved in pro-oxidant reactions, contributing to the antioxidant capacity of the molecule [13]

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Synthesis and Evaluation of Herbal Based Hair Dye

Author: Rashmi Saxena Pal

Abstract

Background:

Herbal based hair dyes are being preferred on large scale, due to the vast number of advantages it exerts to overcome the ill-effects of a chemical based hair dye. We have attempted to prepare and standardize this preparation to ensure its quality as well as stability aspects.

Objective:

The current research was aimed at the preparation of herbal hair dye and the evaluation of its various parameters as organoleptic, physico-chemical, phytoconstituents, rheological aspects, patch test and stability testing for its efficacy and shelf life.

Materials and Methods:

The herbal dye was prepared in-house according to the proposed composition, using all the natural ingredients. The dye was evaluated for its organoleptic, physico-chemical and stability parameters.

Results:

The parameters were found to be comparable and sufficient for the evaluation of herbal dye. The values of different evaluations justified the usage of the hair dye.

Conclusion:

Herbal based hair dye has been prepared and evaluated using the various parameters. It offers a natural alternate, which can be used, irrespective of any side effects. The results can be incorporated while developing the pharmacopoeial standards.

TODJ-12-90_F1

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Modifications of Midfacial Soft-Tissue Thickness Among Different Skeletal Classes in Italian Children

Author: Daniele Gibelli

Abstract

Background:

The anatomical assessment of the arrangement of facial soft tissues has important applications in different fields from orthodontics to plastic surgery. One of the issues concerns the relationship between facial soft tissue thickness and skeletal class. Literature mainly deals with adult populations, whereas very few studies have been focused on children.

Objective:

This study aims at investigating the relationship between midline facial soft tissue thickness and skeletal classes in Italian pre-treatment orthodontic child patients.

Methods:

Lateral cephalometric X-ray films were obtained from 220 healthy Caucasoid children (91 males and 129 females), aged between 6 and 18 years (Class I: 41 males and 70 females; Class II: 18 males and 25 females; Class III: 32 males and 34 females). All the films were digitized and 14 soft tissue thicknesses were measured on the midface; in addition, the skeletal class was assessed according to the corrected ANB angle (ANBc). Differences in facial soft tissue thickness according to sex and skeletal class were assessed through two-way ANOVA test (p<0.01).

Results:

Statistically significant differences according to sex were found for labrale superius, stomion and labrale inferius, with thicker soft tissues in males than in females (p<0.01). Only measurements at labrale superius and gnathion showed statistically significant differences according to skeletal class, with thicker soft tissues in Class III children and thinner ones in Class II children (p<0.01).

Conclusion:

The limited number of investigations, as well as the differences in protocols, renders the comparison of results from different studies difficult, suggesting further investigations to enlighten this complex and debated anatomical issue.

TOMIJ-10-1_F1

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First Molecular Identification of Symbiotic Archaea in a Sponge Collected from the Persian Gulf, Iran

Author: Akram Najafi

Abstract

Background:

Marine sponges are associated with numerically vast and phylogenetically diverse microbial communities at different geographical locations. However, little is known about the archaeal diversity of sponges in the Persian Gulf. The present study was aimed to identify the symbiotic archaea with a sponge species gathered from the Persian Gulf, Iran.

Methods:

Sponge sample was collected from a depth of 3 m offshore Bushehr, Persian Gulf, Iran. Metagenomic DNA was extracted using a hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) method. The COI mtDNA marker was used for molecular taxonomy identification of sponge sample. Also, symbiotic archaea were identified using the culture-independent analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and PCR- cloning.

Results:

In this study, analysis of multilocus DNA marker and morphological characteristics revealed that the sponge species belonged to Chondrilla australiensis isolate PG_BU4. PCR cloning and sequencing showed that all of the sequences of archaeal 16S rRNA gene libraries clustered into the uncultured archaeal group.

Conclusion:

The present study is the first report of the presence of the genus of Chondrilla in the Persian Gulf. Traditional taxonomy methods, when used along with molecular techniques, could play a significant role in the accurate taxonomy of sponges. Also, the uncultured archaea may promise a potential source for bioactive compounds. Further functional studies are needed to explore the role of the sponge-associated uncultured archaea as a part of the marine symbiosis.

TOMICROJ-12-323_F2
Light micrograph of Chondrilla australiensis skeleton. A) Ectosomal skeleton (scale bar 100 μm), B) Choanosomal skeleton (scale bar 100 μm), C) Spheraster (scale bar 10 μm), D) Speroxyaster (scale bar 10 μm)

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