The Effect of Form Factors of Shock Absorption Mat’s Subunits on Attenuation of Force from Elderly’s Fall

Author: Ariya Atthawuttikul

Abstract

Background and Objective:

The purpose of this study was to investigate how differently various form factors of subunits of shock absorption mat attenuate force from the elderly’s fall.

Methods:

The study procedures were the following: (1) literature review: possible form factors affecting the shock absorbing capacity were analyzed and synthesized from the review; (2) synthesis of design criteria: criteria for force simulation were formulated based on the information from the review; and (3) simulation: simulation of force from elderly’s fall absorbed by such mats with the following control and independent variables that were analyzed and synthesized in the previous steps: (control variables): 1) impact force, 2) physical properties of the rubber material; (independent variables): 1) form of cross-section, 2) form of edges, 3) pattern of arrangement of subunits in the structural layer, and 4) dimensional proportion of subunits.

Results and Conclusion:

The simulation results show that the subunits with a circular-cross-section and hourglass-like-edge form factors were the best at attenuating impact force. The best pattern of subunit arrangement was a table arrangement. This study was a preliminary study to a design of subunits of shock absorption mat. The results would be used in the next, more comprehensive study.

TOBCTJ-12-350_F1
A shock-absorption floor mat system with a fully-functional shock-absorbing middle structural layer.

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Hourly and Daily Traffic Expansion Factors on Selected Roads in Gaza, Palestine

Author: Yahya R. Sarraj

Abstract

Background:

The shortage of sufficient, reliable and continuous traffic data in many developing countries makes it difficult for traffic engineers and researchers. Traffic data are essential for both planning and design of transportation facilities.

Objective:

This work tries to provide data that in order to help local experts in Gaza city to provide better estimates of the average daily traffic (ADT) and hence better transportation facilities.

Methods:

The analysis and discussion are based on continuous traffic flow counts conducted on three selected main streets in Gaza. Data were collected for 24 hours on seven consecutive days on each street.

Results:

The results indicate that the average hourly expansion factors(HEFs) have a margin of error for the period between 7:00 and 16:00 that does not exceed ±3%. The results also indicate that the average daily expansion factors (DEFs) on the three streets have a maximum margin of error of 3.2% on both Sunday and Monday. On the other hand, the analysis proved that the maximum peak hour volume was 2864 vehicles/hour on Al Jalaa Street between 7:00 and 8:00 and the average peak-to-daily ratio (p/d) of the three streets was found to be 7.18%. The maximum directional traffic split (D) was found to be 60% in the heaviest direction of traffic flow during the peak period.

Conclusion:

The HEFs and DEFs produced in this work can be used with a 95% confidence on the main streets of Gaza city.

TOCIEJ-12-355_F1.jpg

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Press Release: “Sarcopenic obesity: The ignored phenotype that need more studies for a better understanding”

The article by Dr. Marwan El Ghoch et al. is published in The Open Nutrition Journal, Volume 12, 2018

A new condition, that occurs in the presence of both sarcopenia and obesity and termed as “sarcopenic obesity”, and that describes under the same phenotype the increase in body fat mass deposition, and the reduction in lean mass and muscle strength.

Recently, Professor Marwan El Ghoch from the Department of Nutrition & Dieitics at Beirut Arab University – Lebanon, in a short communication recently published in The Open Nutrition Journal highlighted that many uncertainties still surround the condition of sarcopenic obesity in terms of definition, adverse health effects and clinical management via three important questions:

1) What is the definition of sarcopenic obesity?

2) Is sarcopenic obesity harmful to health?

3) Is this condition worth treating?

In this direction he suggested a flow chart regard the best approach to the study the sarcopenic obesity, and emphasized some crucial aspects that future research should take into account in order to avoid bias and misinterpretations.

Finally Professor El Ghoch, concluded by underlining that the study of sarcopenic obesity should be considered a scientific and clinical priority, as reported by two important bodies: the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) and the European Association for the Study of Obesity (EASO).

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https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2018-11/bsp-sot110618.php

Metabolic and Cardiovascular Comorbidities Among Clinically Stable HIV Patients on Long-Term ARV Therapy in Five Ambulatory Clinics in Lima-Callao, Peru

Author: Jose A Hidalgo

Abstract

Background:

There is scarcity of data about the prevalence of non-AIDS defining comorbidities among stable HIV-infected patients in Peru.

Objective:

We aimed to describe the most frequent cardiometabolic comorbidities found among ambulatory adults on ARV in Peru.

Methods:

A review of records for patients attending regular visits at 5 clinics in Lima-Callao in January-February 2016 is presented. Patients were adults on ARV for >6 months, with no recent AIDS-defining condition.

Results:

Three hundred and five medical charts were reviewed. Most patients were male (73.1%, n=223) with a mean age of 46.0 years. Mean time from HIV diagnosis was 9.41 yrs. and mean duration of ARV was 7.78 yrs. Most patients were on an NNRTI-based first line regimen (76.4%, n=233), and 12.1% (n=37) were on rescue regimens. Median CD4 count was 614.2 cells/µL and the proportion of patients with viral load <40 c/mL was 90.8% (n=277). Most frequent metabolic diagnoses were dyslipidemia (51.5%, n=157), obesity (11.1%, n=34), and diabetes mellitus (7.2%, n=22). Hypertension was diagnosed in 8.9% (n=27). Other diagnoses of cardiovascular disease were documented in 3.3% (n=10). Pharmacologic treatment was prescribed in 91.3% of patients with diabetes or hypertension, but in only 29.3% of patients with dyslipidemia.

Conclusion:

A high proportion of metabolic comorbidities was found, with dyslipidemia being the most frequent, followed by obesity and diabetes. In contrast, cardiovascular disease was documented less frequently. Medical treatment was started for only a third of dyslipidemia patients. HIV care policies need to consider proper management of chronic comorbidities to optimize long-term outcomes.

TOAIDJ-12-126_F1

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Developing a Dashboard Software for the ICUs and Studying its Impact on Reducing the Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia

Author: Mohammad Fathi

Journal: The Open Medical Informatics Journal

Abstract

Objective:

Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP), a lung infection developing in patients on a ventilator in Intensive Care Units (ICU), is the second most common nosocomial infection and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in ICUs. To reduce the incidence rate of VAP complication, many healthcare organizations have already developed certain strategies and guidelines. However, there are still high rates of VAP infections mainly due to: conflicting guidelines from different sources, implementing the guidelines at different times and conditions, different ICU caregivers at different shifts, and of course the human mistakes.

Methods:

The present study aimed to develop a dashboard to help reducing VAP incidences in ICUs. To achieve the objective of the research, first, the VAP prevention guidelines were compiled. The object-oriented analysis approach was adopted for designing of the dashboard software. To assess the impact of the developed dashboard on the reduction of VAP events, a pilot hospital was selected and a pilot project was prepared. For the dashboard usability assessment based on user satisfaction, a questionnaire was developed as the survey tool.

Conclusion:

The dashboard was developed and put into operation in a pilot ICU. The results from the t-test (with a probable error of 0.05 percent) indicated a meaningful difference between the number of VAP patients before and after the dashboard implementation with p-value ˂ 0.02. Also, the developed software was evaluated from a usability point of view based on user satisfaction, with health professionals and caregivers of the pilot ICU as the users of the software. The total score was equivalent to 95 percent, falling within the acceptable range of 75-100 percent.

TOMINFOJ-12-42_F1
The software provides the ICU staff with immediate and easy-to-grasp information on the unit’s situation through presenting real-time graphic (or combination of text and graph) reports.

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Assessing Treatment Outcomes of a Graduate Orthodontic Program

Author: Anastasia Pariskou

Journal: The Open Dentistry Journal

Abstract

Objectives:

To assess treatment outcomes of a graduate orthodontic program during two different periods.

Materials and Methods:

Consecutive orthodontic patients’ files were selected from the archives of the Graduate Orthodontic Program, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece. Following the application of certain inclusion criteria, the final sample consisted of 109 patients. The sample was allocated into two groups depending on the time of treatment [Group A: 1998-2003, (n=60); Group B: 2004-2009 (n=49)]. The first period started a few years after the inception of the program and the second 10 years later. All pre- and post-treatment dental casts were blindly assessed by one investigator using the Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) and the Index of Complexity, Outcome and Need (ICON). Statistical analysis included Student’s t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, Pearson Chi-Square test and Spearman correlation coefficient. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05.

Results:

In Group A, the mean PAR index changed from 28.6 before treatment to 5.5 after treatment and the mean ICON index changed from 71.9 to 23.5. In Group B, the mean PAR index changed from 23.6 before treatment to 4 after treatment and the mean ICON index changed from 62.8 to 19.8. The mean PAR score reduction was 78.4% for the 1st group and 81.4% for the 2nd group, respectively. Ninety percent of the cases of Group A and 89.8% of the cases of Group B had a post-treatment ICON score < 31. The severity of the initial malocclusion was found to be positively correlated with the treatment occlusal outcome. Out of the 109 cases, 68 were considered as substantially or greatly improved, 29 moderately improved, 8 showed minimal improvement and 4 cases were considered as not improved or worse. The mean PAR percentage improvement and the ICON score at the end of treatment were not correlated to the presence or absence of tooth extractions in the treatment plan. There was no correlation between the treatment outcome and the number of graduate residents involved in the therapy. The treatment outcomes were not correlated to the gender or age of patients.

Conclusion:

Patients treated by graduate orthodontic residents during 1998-2009 demonstrated significant improvement of their occlusion and the quality of the treatment remained constant throughout the years. The outcome of orthodontic treatment was not correlated to the gender and the age of patients, the number of postgraduate students performing the treatment, and the presence of tooth extractions in the treatment plan.

TODENTJ-12-896_F1.jpg

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The Antitumor Immunity Mediated by NK Cells: The Role of The NCRs

Author: Mona Rady

Journal: The Open Cancer Immunology Journal

Abstract

Natural Killer (NK) cells are innate immune lymphocytes that are important for early and effective immune responses against infections and cancer. The antitumor immunity mediated by NK cells can be exerted through several direct or indirect “immunosurveillance” mechanisms that control tumor growth and prevent the rapid dissemination of metastatic tumors. NK cells express an array of activating and inhibitory receptors that enable them to recognize and bind non-self as well as self-ligands expressed on the surface of malignant or virally infected cells. The family of Natural Cytotoxicity Receptors (NCRs) comprises three activating receptors; NKp30, NKp44, and NKp46 that are important for the stimulation of NK cell effector functions. This review summarizes the mechanisms of antitumor immunity mediated by natural killer cells with focus on the role of the family of the NCRs and their tumor associated ligands.

TOCIJ-7-7_F1
Tumor associated ligands for NCRs. Schematic representation of tumor associated ligands expressed by tumor cells and their interaction with the NCRs, NKp30, NKp44 and NKp46 expressed on NK cells.

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https://benthamopen.com/ABSTRACT/TOCIJ-7-7