A Comparative Study of Three Nebulized Medications for the Prevention of Postoperative Sore Throat in the Pediatric Population

Author: Raham Hasan Mostafa

Abstract

Background:

The delivery of aerosolized drugs is a vital component of treatment for many respiratory disorders. We used this mode of medication delivery as a pre-emptive strategy to alleviate a Postoperative Sore Throat (POST) in children receiving general anesthesia.

Objectives:

The primary aim of the study was to compare the effects of prophylactic ketamine, magnesium sulfate and dexamethasone nebulization, on the intensity of POST.

Methods:

Through a prospective, randomized, double-blind study, data were collected from children (6-16 years) undergoing surgeries from March 2018 to May 2018. The patients were allocated into 3 equivalent groups (36 patients each). Preoperative nebulization was performed for all patients. Group M received 40 mg/kg magnesium sulphate, group K received 1 mg/kg ketamine, and group D received 0.16 mg dexamethasone. The primary outcome of the study was the incidence and intensity of POST at the 4th postoperative hour. The secondary outcomes included evaluation of adverse effects specifically nausea, vomiting, postoperative cough and postoperative sedation.

Results:

Patients in the K group had the lowest incidence of POST compared to patients in groups M and D, specifically, at the 4th – postoperative hour (p-value = 0.003).

Conclusions:

Preoperative nebulization with ketamine was more effective in reducing the intensity of POST in pediatric patients postoperatively without systemic adverse effects.

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Vitamin D, Inflammation and Immunity: Review of Literature and Considerations on Recent Translational and Clinical Research Developments

Author: Amelia C. Trombetta

Abstract

The most relevant and recent literature findings linking exposure to sunlight, Vitamin D (VD), inflammation and immune system in health and disease, are reviewed.

Reduced sunlight exposure determined hypo-vitaminosis D to be common among patients or even healthy subjects, especially at higher latitudes. Numerous studies support the hypothesis that VD insufficiency could contribute to the higher autoimmune diseases incidence in the same geographic areas.

In the present review, the ways in which VD was reported to influence immune system, contributing to organism homeostasis or disease development are addressed. In fact, some of the hormone activities were recognised to determine stimulation or inhibition of immune system components.

Several diseases, where an association with VD deficiency was studied, are summarised. Finally, the rationale for optimization of substitutive/additive therapy with VD analogues and the last innovations regarding these drugs are mentioned.

TORJ-12-201_F1
Cell-to cell interactions in immune responses modulated by VD

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Association Between the Blue Color Intensity of the Skin with Growth Performance and Skin Spottiness in a Blue-Colored Strain of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

Author: Nelson Colihueque

Abstract

Background:

Blue-colored phenotypes have the potential to enhance the external appearance of rainbow trout for marketing due to their attractive skin coloration. However, further analyses are necessary to assess their overall performance for fish farming purposes.

Objective:

To investigate a blue-colored strain of rainbow trout in order to determine whether growth performance and spotting variation of the skin, either in number or size, are related to Blue Color Intensity on the back skin (BCI).

Method:

A correlation analysis and comparisons among trout separated into Low- and High-BCI categories were carried out in three blue-colored groups of rainbow trout.

Results:

In all groups, BCI was significantly and positively related to body weight (0.01 < P < 0.05). There was a significant and negative association between BCI and the number of dark spots in one group (P < 0.001), whereas no significant association was observed among BCI and dark spot size in any of the groups (P > 0.05). In one group, a significantly higher body weight (P < 0.05) was observed in the High-BCI (BCI ≥ 50%) than in the Low-BCI (BCI < 50%) category. The same pattern was observed in two groups (P < 0.05) when the lowest (1st) and highest (4th) quartiles of BCI were compared. In one group, number of dark spots was significantly lower in the High-BCI (≥ 50% and 4th quartile) than in the Low-BCI (< 50% and 1st quartile) category (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). Dark spot size presented no significant differences among BCI categories (P > 0.05) in any of the groups.

Conclusion:

Results suggest that trout with more intensely blue colored skin has better growth performance and relatively less spotted skin than less intensely blue-colored specimens. These characteristics may represent an interesting advantage for using this class of trout in intensive fish farming.

TOASJ-12-251_F1

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Cement Arthrodesis of the Knee with a Custom Long Recon Nail After Failed Total Knee Arthroplasty: Surgical Technique and Results

Author: Malcolm R. DeBaun

Abstract

Background and Objective:

Persistent periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a devastating complication after Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA). We hypothesize that our novel treatment algorithm utilizing a customized knee spanning recon nail combined with an antibiotic eluting cement spacer improves ambulation status and prevents recurrent PJI in patients with failed TKA and severe bone loss.

Methods:

In a retrospective case series, 15 consecutive patients who underwent knee arthrodesis after failed ipsilateral TKA secondary to infection from 2004-2017 with at least 1 year of follow-up were enrolled. The average age of patients at the time surgery was 68 (range 50-81) years with an average follow-up of 3.2 (range 1-6) years. Post-surgical ambulation status and eradication of index infection were analyzed as primary outcomes using McNemar’s test for before-and-after study design with p<0.05 for significance.

Results:

Cement arthrodesis significantly improved ambulation with 67% (10/15) of patients unable to ambulate before arthrodesis and 93% (14/15) of patients able to ambulate at final follow-up (p=0.004). The complication rate was 20% (3/15). There were no periprosthetic fractures. Amongst patients who presented with active PJI, 91% (10/11) had eradication of their index infection final follow-up (p=0.002). Overall prevention of recurrent index infection was 93% (14/15) (p=0.0001).

Conclusion:

Cement arthrodesis utilizing a custom knee spanning recon nail combined with an antibiotic eluting spacer improves ambulation status and prevents or treats recurrent infection in the majority of patients who have failed total knee arthroplasty.

TOORTHJ-12-554_F1
Standing long leg radiographs of left knee static antibiotic spacer (first stage) and definitive left knee cement arthrodesis (second stage) in a patient who presented with active periprosthetic joint infection.

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Spontaneous Neuronal Signaling is Inherently Musical and Mathematical: Insight into the Universal Human Affinity for Music

Author: Thomas B. Shea

Journal: The Open Neurology Journal

Abstract

Objective:

Audio files of spontaneous signal streams generated by ex vivo neuronal networks cultured on multi-electrode arrays generated an oscillating sine wave with an inherent musical quality. This was not anticipated considering that synaptic signals are “all – or – none”, and therefore digital, events.

Methods:

These findings may provide insight into why music can be perceived as pleasurable and invoke a calm mood despite that music is ultimately perceived and stored as a series of digital signals; it is speculated that music may reinforce and/or enhance this spontaneous digital stream.

Results and Conclusion:

These findings also support the relationship between music and mathematics.

TONEUJ-12-64_F1
Multi-electrode arrays. Panel A: Representative image of cortical neurons after 7 days of culturing in a MEA chamber. The dark circles are electrodes and the corresponding black lines interface with the amplifier. Panel B: Two sets of spontaneous recordings from the indicated electrodes; recordings in each set were captured simultaneously. Arrows denote clear spontaneous signals. Note synchronous signaling at multiple electrode

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Characterization of Cells Interactions with Patterned Azopolymer-Based Materials using SEM, AFM and Video Microscopy

Author: Régis Barillé

Abstract

Introduction:

Artificial Extracellular Matrices (ECMs) are promising tools for the study of cell behaviors.

Methods:

Here, we report a protocol for the use of a reconfigurable biocompatible azopolymer thin film through a photoinduced reconfigurable structuration of its surface to study nerve growth, differentiation and cell guidance.

Results & Discussion:

We show that this protocol combined with a spontaneous self-photoinduced polymer is suitable for time-lapse fluorescence video microscopy and can be easily adapted to electron microscopy techniques (SEM) and near-field imaging techniques (AFM).

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