Motion Tracking for Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment of Upper Limb Movements Following Acromioclavicular Joint Ligament Reconstruction: A Pilot Study

Author: Stefano Mazzoleni et al.

Journal: The Open Biomedical Engineering Journal

Abstract

Background:

Technological tools as robotic devices and wearable sensors can provide accurate and repeatable measurements of physical variables (e.g., position, velocities, forces) which can be used for quantitative and qualitative assessment of movement analysis and upper limb motor performance.

Objective:

The study aims to propose a quantitative and qualitative assessment of upper limb motor performance by means of seven kinematic parameters recorded by a passive mechatronic device in patients who underwent a surgical procedure for ligament reconstruction following acromioclavicular joint dislocation.

Method:

Five patients (mean age: 40 ± 12 years) with acromioclavicular joint dislocation were enrolled.

A passive end-effector mechatronic device characterized by 7 degrees of freedom and designed for the assessment of upper limb motor performance – especially for measuring the hand position in three-dimensional space – was used.

The Constant-Murley score and seven kinematic parameters were used as clinical outcome measure and quantitative and qualitative assessment, respectively.

Results:

The preliminary results of this study show no significant differences between the impaired arm and unimpaired arm: the end-effector passive mechatronic device used in this study is able to provide an overall assessment of the upper limb motor performance following shoulder impairment.

Conclusion:

The motion tracker can be easily used as effective tool for quantitative and qualitative assessment of upper limb motor performance, even several years after the surgical operation.

 

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Research Article: “Comparative Study of Femur Bone Having Different Boundary Conditions and Bone Structure Using Finite Element Method”

Author: K.N. Chethan

Journal: The Open Biomedical Engineering Journal

Abstract

Background:

Femur bone is an important part in human which basically gives stability and support to carry out all day to day activities. It carries loads from upper body to lower abdomen.

Objective:

In this work, the femur having composite structure with cortical, cancellous and bone marrow cavity is bisected from condyle region with respect to 25%, 50% and 75% of its height. There is considerable difference in the region chosen for fixing all degrees of freedom in the analysis of femur.

Methods:

The CT scans are taken, and 3D model is developed using MIMICS. The developed model is used for static structural analysis by varying the load from 500N to 3000N.

Results:

The findings for 25% bisected femur model report difference in directional deformation less than 5% for loads 2000N and less. In the study comparing fully solid bone and the composite bone, the total deformation obtained for a complete solid bone was 3.5 mm which was 18.7% less than that determined for the composite bone.

Conclusion:

The standardization for fixing the bone is developed. And it is required to fix the distal end always with considering full femur bone.

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Patient-Specific Static Structural Analysis of Femur Bone of different lengths

Author: K.N. Chethan

Abstract

Background:

The femur bone is an essential part of human activity, providing stability and support in carrying out our day to day activities. The inter-human anatomical variation and load bearing ability of humans of different heights will provide the necessary understanding of their functional ability.

Objective:

In this study, femur bone of two humans of different lengths (tall femur and short femur) were subjected to static structural loading conditions to evaluate their load-bearing abilities using Finite Element Analysis.

Methods:

The 3D models of femur bones were developed using MIMICS from the CT scans which were then subjected to static structural analysis by varying the load from 1000N to 8000N. The von Mises stress and deformation were captured to compare the performance of each of the femur bones.

Results:

The tall femur resulted in reduced Von-Mises stress and total deformation when compared to the short femur. However, the maximum principle stresses showed an increase with an increase in the bone length. In both the femurs, the maximum stresses were observed in the medullary region.

Conclusion:

When the applied load exceeds 10 times the body weight of the person, the tall femur model exceeded 134 MPa stress value. The short femur model failed at 9 times the body weight, indicating that the tall femur had higher load-bearing abilities.

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Effect of Acute Increases in Intraocular Pressure on Corneal Pachymetry in Rabbit Eyes Treated with Timolol Maleate

Author: Gema Bolívar

Journal: The Open Ophthalmology Journal

Abstract

Objective:

To evaluate in an in vivo rabbit model, the effect of topical timolol maleate therapy on the central corneal thickness response to acute intraocular pressure increases.

Method:

In this prospective and interventional controlled study, the central corneal thickness and intraocular pressure were measured in vivo in 12 rabbit eyes treated with topical timolol maleate for 1 month and in 12 controls at baseline, and after the intraocular pressure (measured by direct cannulation of the anterior chamber) was increased to 15 and 30 mmHg using a forced saline infusion into the anterior chamber.

Results:

There were no significant differences in the basal central corneal thickness values (control group, 373.2±12.9 µm; study group, 377.5±19.2 µm, p=0.5) or the central corneal thickness values when the intraocular pressure was increased to 15 mmHg (control group, 335.2±14.3 µm; study group, 330.0±32.1 µm, p=0.6) and to 30 mmHg (study group, 318.8±25.3 µm; control group, 329.8±21.0 µm, p=0.3).

Conclusion:

Rabbit corneas treated with topical timolol maleate for 1 month did not show a strain response to acute intraocular pressure increases that differed from control eyes. This is in contrast to a previous finding in which rabbit eyes treated with prostaglandin analogues had a greater decrease in central corneal thickness in response to a sudden intraocular pressure increase compared with untreated corneas.

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Health-Related Quality of Life and Associated Factors Among People Living with HIV /AIDS Following ART Clinic in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia: A Facility- Based Cross-Sectional Study

Author: Tamiru Tesfaye 

Journal: The Open Public Health Journal

Abstract

Background:

HIV care of people living with HIV /AIDS (PLWH/A) is critical for fruitful HIV inhibition, treatment and provision of quality of life. The goal of Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) is to suppress viral replication, lessen morbidity and death, and improve patients’ quality of life. The quality of life of HIV/AIDS patients is not well appraised in the study area beforehand. Therefore, this study assessed the health-related quality of life and associated factors among people living with HIV /AIDS followed by ART Clinic in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia.

Methods:

We used facility based cross-sectional study design and 351 samples selected by systematic random sampling from Jimma University Specialized Hospital ART clinic in March-2014. Data were collected through interviewer-administered questionnaires and analyzed by using SPSS version 20.0 software. Descriptive analysis (frequency and percentage) was calculated. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify associated factors. The association between the explanatory and dependent variables was assessed at p-value of less than 0.05. The results were presented in a narrative form, tables and graphs.

Results:

From the total respondents, 143 (40.7%) of them have low quality of life in general. Of these, 238 (67.8%) of them had low psychological domain, 136 (38.7%) had low physical domain and 223 (63.5%) low social domain. The age ≤ 39 years (AOR = 2.381 [95% CI = 1.238, 4.579]), Currently employed (AOR= 3.509 [95% CI = 1.900, 6.482]), current CD4 count ≥ 250 cell/ml (AOR = 2.663 [95% CI = 1.363,5.203]), current WHO Stage I-II (AOR = 4.772 [95% CI = 2.308, 9.865]), good general health condition (AOR = 2.609 [95%CI = 1.372, 4.961]), no comorbidity (AOR = 7.737 [95% CI = 4.146, 4.438), friendly social relationship (AOR = 5.395 [95% CI = 2.781, 10.467]), other persons reminded their drugs took time (AOR = 3.363 [95% CI = 1.629, 6.943]) and drunk alcohol (AOR = 1.915[95% CI = 1.039, 3.529]) were identified as the predictors of health related quality of life.

Conclusion:

Findings of this study indicate that the significant number of participants exists on low-level- of health related quality of life in general. The age, occupation, current CD4 count level, current WHO stage status, general health conditions, comorbidity conditions, status of their social relations, their conditions due to lack of support, reminder of drugs taking time, and alcohol drinking status have been observed to have a statistically significant association with their health-related quality of life status.

 

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Removal of Zinc (II) and Ni (II) by using Bio-Polymer “Chitin”

Author: Baby AbrarUnnisa Begum

Journal: Open Chemistry Journal

Abstract

Introduction:

The increasing level of toxic metals in the environment is causing serious repercussions on the health of human beings. To mitigate the adverse effects of heavy metal concentration in the receiving waters, it is necessary to develop an affordable cost effective technology, which is effective to remove the heavy metals. The purpose of the present work is to investigate the removal of Nickel and Zinc ions from the water using known adsorbents. Chitin is a biopolymer used as as adsorbent to remove metal ions from the solution. Chitin is inexpensive adsorbent and is available abundantly.

Methods and Materials:

In this study, the adsorption techniques, such as variations at different pH levels, contact time and dosage of known concentration of different metal standard solutions and quantity of adsorbent were carried out. The experimental data is attached overleaf with different isotherms and kinetic models.

Results:

The results revealed that the optimum pH found in the removal of Zn and Nickel ions is 6-6.5. The equilibrium attained after 7 minutes. The low pore size was observed to be effective for adsorption. The results of the experimental data revealed that the adsorption process follows the first order kinetic model. By using Langmuir isotherm, the adsorption capacity of Chitin was evaluated.

Conclusion:

The results indicate that the Chitin is one of the best adsorbents for the removal of cations from the aqueous solution.

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Fig. (1) Equilibrium time of 7 min shows qe (mg/g) versus time.

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Vitamin D and Spondyloarthritis: Review of the Literature

Author: Chiara Crotti

Journal: The Open Rheumatology Journal

Abstract

Background:

Spondyloarthritides (SpAs) encompass heterogeneous diseases sharing similar genetic background, pathogenic mechanisms, and phenotypic features. Vitamin D is essential for calcium metabolism and skeletal homeostasis. Some recent evidences reported supplemental functions of vitamin D, such as modulation of inflammatory reactions.

Objective:

To analyze published data about a possible association between vitamin D and SpAs.

Results:

Vitamin D could play a role in immune reactions, influencing both immune and adaptive response. Vitamin D deficiency is more frequent in SpAs than in general population: an active and more severe disease infers patients’ mobility and reduces sunlight exposure. Quiescent inflammatory bowel disease, frequently associated with SpAs, could worsen vitamin D deficiency. All the parameters related to UVB exposure are the most important determinants for vitamin D status and need to be considered evaluating the vitamin D levels in SpAs.

Apart from musculoskeletal problems, patients affected by SpAs frequently suffer from other comorbidities, especially cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis, and vitamin D status could have a relevance in this field. Bone is involved in SpAs with a dualistic role, coexisting trabecular bone resorption and new bone formation.

It seems rational to monitor vitamin D levels in SpA subjects and to target it to global health threshold.

Conclusion:

Literature data were not completely in agreement about a possible relation between poor vitamin D status and onset or worse disease course of SpAs. In fact, these results come from cross-sectional studies, which affect our ability to infer causality. Therefore, large, randomized controlled trials are needed.

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Recently Published Article: Morphological, Molecular, Biochemical and Nutritional Characterization of Three Major Thais Species from the Sindh Coast of Pakistan

Author: Syed Abid Ali

Journal: The Open Food Science Journal

Abstract

Objective:

The present study was conducted to investigate the biomass assessment, morphological and molecular identification, nutritive status and biochemical characterization of three major Thais species (T. bufoT. hippocastanum and T. rudolphi) from the Sindh Coast, Pakistan.

Methods:

Samples were collected from Buleji and Paradise Point at the Sindh Coast. Species were identified morphologically as well as genetically by amplifying two mitochondrial 16S rDNA & Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) and one nuclear (Histone H3) genes. Shell microstructure and chemistry were also studied by scanning electron microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). The body muscle was dissected and used for nutritional composition determination such as estimation of total protein, carbohydrates, lipids, protein fingerprinting by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Size-Exclusion – Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography (SEC-FPLC), amino acid and fatty acid analysis.

Results:

Nutritionally, the total protein was found to be the major content followed by carbohydrate and lipid in the three Thais sp. The presence of medicinally important hemocyanin as abundant hemolymph protein was confirmed via SDS-PAGE and SEC FPLC. Nine different types of fatty acids and a high concentration of essential amino acids were also determined.

Conclusion:

Our findings suggest that Thais sp. are nutritionally rich and can be consumed as a valuable marine resource to overcome the malnutrition problem in developing countries.

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Press Release: Antifungal activity and detoxification of aflatoxins

This article by Dr. Bárbara Ponzilacqua Silva has been published in The Open Food Science Journal, Volume 10, 2018

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