Impact of Microencapsulation on Two Probiotic Strains in Alginate Chitosan and Eudragit S100

What is it about?

The main purpose of this research was evaluating the viability of two bacteria of Lactobacillus Casei and Lactobacillus Bulgaricus in different conditions of simulated gastrointestinal circumstance and yogurt. Furthermore, the role of double-coated beads with alginate chitosan (First coating), and Eudragit S100 (Second coating) investigated comparing with free coating cells.

Why is it important?

This study also confirms the result obtained in previous researches by others, in which employing encapsulation for lactic acid bacteria mainly L. Casei and L. Bulgaricus acts as an extender of viability. Consequently, these bacteria will live longer than the usual circumstance. In particular, the impacts of microencapsulation were assessed in two conditions of simulated GI stress and presence in fermented dairy product namely yogurt.

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Call for Papers | The Open Dentistry Journal

The Open Dentistry Journal is an Open Access online journal, which publishes research articles, reviews/mini-reviews, letters, case reports and guest edited single topic issues in all areas of dentistry and the oral cavity.

The journal encourages submissions related to the following fields of dentistry:

  • Restorative Dentistry
  • Management of Dental Disease
  • Periodontology
  • Dental Implants
  • Oral Pathology
  • Maxillofacial Surgery
  • Endodontology
  • Operative Dentistry
  • Fixed and Removable Prosthodontics
  • Dental Biomaterials Science
  • Oral Medicine
  • Clinical Trials
  • Translational Research

The Open Dentistry Journal, a peer-reviewed journal, is an important and reliable source of current information on important recent developments in the field. The emphasis will be on publishing quality papers rapidly and freely available to researchers worldwide.

Each peer-reviewed article that is published in a Bentham OPEN Journal is universally and freely accessible via the Internet in an easily readable and printable PDF format.

To submit your paper, email at: beena@benthamopen.net and CC: faizan@benthamopen.net

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Research Article: Arthrodesis of the Distal Interphalangeal Joint and the Thumb Interphalangeal Joint: A Retrospective Comparison of Kirschner Wires and the Acutrak 2 Headless Compression Screw

Author Name: Jens-Christian Vedel

Journal: The Open Orthopaedics Journal

Background:

Headless compression screws have become first choice for achieving arthrodesis in the distal interphalangeal joint and thumb interphalangeal joint. Only few comparisons between headless compression screws and other methods have been published.

Objective:

To assess healing and complication rate after arthrodesis of the distal interphalangeal joint or the thumb interphalangeal joint using a headless compression screw or Kirschner wires.

Methods:

A retrospective analysis of 148 consecutive primary fusions performed with the Acutrak 2 headless compression screw (n=107) or K-wires (n=41) was conducted. Healing was assessed clinically and radiographically at 6 to 8 weeks postoperatively.

Results:

In 89% of cases fusion had been achieved at 6 to 8 weeks postoperatively using the headless compression screw. 7 cases healed after 8 weeks. Secondary surgery with screw removal was required in 11 cases due to screw prominence, infection or non-union.

In 71% of cases fusion had been achieved at 6 to 8 weeks postoperatively using Kirschner wires showing a lower fusion rate at this stage as compared to the headless compression screw group (p<0.05). 9 joints in the Kirschner wire group fused at some point after 8 weeks of follow up yielding a total fusion rate of 93% which was similar to 96% in the headless compression screw group (p>0.05). One infection occurred in the Kirschner wire group.

Conclusion:

Arthrodesis can be achieved with either a headless compression screw or Kirschner wires both showing equivalent total fusion rates though fusion may occur earlier using a headless compression screw.

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Research Article: Awareness of the Relationship between Systemic and Periodontal Diseases among Physicians and Dentists in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait: Cross-sectional Study

Author Name: Fathima F. Farook

Journal: The Open Dentistry Journal

Background:

Previous studies have shown possible association between periodontal diseases and Diabetes Mellitus (DM), Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes (APO). Increasing the knowledge of physicians and dentists regarding the association between periodontal disease and systemic diseases should improve their ability to provide a high standard of treatment for the disease and prevent its consequences. In our study, we sought to identify knowledge gaps in the awareness of the relationship between systemic and periodontal diseases among dentists and physicians from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the State of Kuwait.

Methods:

A cross-sectional study was performed with a convenient sample of selected physicians and dentists in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait using a self-developed structured questionnaire. Physicians’ and dentists’ awareness were assessed regarding current evidence of the relationship between systemic diseases and conditions (DM, CVD, APO) and periodontal diseases.

Results:

A total of 134 (21.5%) of the identified physicians and 485 (78%) of the identified dentists participated in this study. More than half of the participants (52.1% physicians and 67.5% dentists) agreed that there is a relationship between periodontal diseases and DM, CVD and APO. Dentists had a statistically higher level of awareness compared with the physicians. The findings related to the awareness of the dentist sub groups highlighted that periodontists were significantly more likely to have a good level of knowledge.

Conclusion:

Within the limitations of this study, we concluded that the awareness of physicians and dentists regarding the relationship between periodontal diseases and systemic diseases (DM, CVD, APO) is generally low, Therefore, improved collaboration between medical and dental health providers is recommended.

 

Research Article: Modes of Action and Clinical Efficacy of Particulate Hydroxyapatite in Preventive Oral Health Care − State of the Art

Author Name: Frederic Meyer

Journal: The Open Dentistry Journal

Background:

Particulate Hydroxyapatite (HAP; Ca5(PO4)3(OH)) is being increasingly used as multifunctional active ingredient in oral care. Due to its high similarity to human enamel crystallites, it is considered as a biomimetic agent.

Objective:

The aim of this narrative review is to identify the modes of action of HAP in preventive oral health care based on published studies. The outcomes are expected to improve the understanding of the effects of HAP in the oral cavity and to provide a knowledge base for future research in the field of biomimetic oral care.

Methods:

The data analyzed and discussed are primarily based on selected published scientific studies and reviews from in vivoin situ, and in vitro studies on HAP in the field of preventive oral health care. The databases Cochrane Library, EBSCO, PubMed and SciFinder were used for literature search.

Results:

We identified different modes of action of HAP in the oral cavity. They are mainly based on (I) Physical principles (e.g. attachment of HAP-particles to the tooth surface and cleaning properties), (II) Bio-chemical principles (e.g. source of calcium and phosphate ions under acidic conditions and formation of an interface between HAP-particles and the enamel), and (III) Biological principles (e.g. HAP-particles interacting with microorganisms).

Conclusion:

Although more mechanistic studies are needed, published data show that HAP has multiple modes of action in the oral cavity. Since the effects address a wide range of oral health problems, HAP is a biomimetic agent with a broad range of applications in preventive oral health care.

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Research Article: In vitro Assessment of Peri-implantitis Treatment Procedures: A Review

Author Name: Olivier Huck

Journal: The Open Dentistry Journal

Background:

The prevalence of peri-implantitis is increasing continuously and such a biological complication significantly decreases implant survival and success. Although various treatment modalities have been identified for peri-implantitis, no completely efficient method has yet been established.

Objective:

The aim of this review was to evaluate the scientific literature regarding the in vitro effects of peri-implantitis treatment.

Methods:

A review of the literature was performed by using Google Scholar, PubMed/ MEDLINE and Science Direct databases. In vitrostudies on peri-implantitis treatment modalities were selected. The search strategy identified 57 eligible studies. After selection, 21 articles met all the inclusion criteria and were included in the present review.

Results:

Included in vitro studies evaluated different types of peri-implantitis treatment modalities such as mechanical, chemical, combination and laser therapies. Combination therapies with the aid of adjuvants were found to be more effective compared to the studies that used only one type of treatment modality. Laser systems were also tested and displayed interesting results in terms of surface decontamination with a variability associated with selected parameters.

Conclusion:

This review was performed to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment modalities used for peri-implantitis in vitro. Although there are various effective treatment methods, none has been completely successful in removing the biofilms related to peri-implantitis. The findings imply the need for further studies to develop more effective antimicrobial treatment procedures.

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