Bentham Open

Opening Access to Science

Recently Published Article – “Lifting Loads on Unstable Platforms – A Supplementary View on Stabilizer Muscles and Terminological Issues”

Journal: The Open Sports Sciences Journal

Author(s): Armin Kibele



Many open motor skills, for example in team sports and combat sports, are executed under mild to severe conditions of instability. Therefore, over the past two decades, coaching professionals and athletes have shown increasing interest in training routines to enhance the physical prerequisites for strength performance in this regard. Exercise scientists have identified instability resistance training as a possible means to improve strength performance under conditions of instability with a special emphasis on the core muscles. In this letter article, more specifically, we firstly argue that effects of resistance training may be found not only in the core muscles but in the stabilizer muscles in general. Moreover, specific testing procedures are needed to assess strength performance under instability as compared to stable testing. As a second issue of this letter article, we consider instability to be an inappropriate term to characterize mild to moderate equilibrium disturbances during competition and exercise. Instead, when conceptualizing the human body as a dynamic system, metastability appears to better suit the conditions of strength performance on slippery surfaces, waves, during gusts of wind or tackling opponents for example. In fact, this term is conventionally used to characterize other dynamic systems in thermodynamics, financial markets, climatology, and social groups for instance. In the recent past, metastability has been discussed for issues in motor control as well. Hence, we argue that metastability idea should be applied to exercise science as well when assigning the biomechanical equilibrium conditions during perturbed strength performance.

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Recently Published Article – “Effect of Age, Sex and Gender on Pain Sensitivity: A Narrative Review”

Journal: The Open Pain Journal

Author(s): Hanan G. EltumiOsama A. Tashani




An increasing body of literature on sex and gender differences in pain sensitivity has been accumulated in recent years. There is also evidence from epidemiological research that painful conditions are more prevalent in older people. The aim of this narrative review is to critically appraise the relevant literature investigating the presence of age and sex differences in clinical and experimental pain conditions.


A scoping search of the literature identifying relevant peer reviewed articles was conducted on May 2016. Information and evidence from the key articles were narratively described and data was quantitatively synthesised to identify gaps of knowledge in the research literature concerning age and sex differences in pain responses.


This critical appraisal of the literature suggests that the results of the experimental and clinical studies regarding age and sex differences in pain contain some contradictions as far as age differences in pain are concerned. While data from the clinical studies are more consistent and seem to point towards the fact that chronic pain prevalence increases in the elderly findings from the experimental studies on the other hand were inconsistent, with pain threshold increasing with age in some studies and decreasing with age in others.


There is a need for further research using the latest advanced quantitative sensory testing protocols to measure the function of small nerve fibres that are involved in nociception and pain sensitivity across the human life span.


Findings from these studies should feed into and inform evidence emerging from other types of studies (e.g. brain imaging technique and psychometrics) suggesting that pain in the older humans may have unique characteristics that affect how old patients respond to intervention.

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Recently Published Article – “Family Size Preferences in a College Student Sample”

Journal: The Open Family Studies Journal

Author(s): Brian H. BornsteinDavid K. DiLilloHannah Dietrich




Family size preferences and birth rate vary across culture, gender, religion, race/ethnicity, and time; yet little is known about how or when people decide how many children to have. Sociobiology suggests that women should invest more time and effort into the decision than men.


The study’s purpose is to examine family size preferences in a sample of male and female college students.


A sample of childless, college-aged participants (n =394; 58.7% women) completed a survey about their desires concerning procreation (e.g., “How many children do you want to have?” “How committed to that number are you?” “How old were you when you picked this number?”).


Women reported deciding how many children they ideally wanted at a younger age than men, being more committed to that number, and having given it more careful thought. Women also wanted to have their first child at a younger age than men, although men wanted marginally more offspring overall. Participants who used birth control wanted fewer children than those who did not. There were few differences as a function of religion or race/ethnicity.


Family size preferences were consistent with sociobiological predictions, with women knowing how many children they wanted at a younger age than men, being more committed to a specific number, having given the matter more careful thought, and wanting to start childbearing at a younger age. Thus, despite recent cultural and societal changes, biological imperatives still appear to influence decision making about this most fundamental of behaviors.

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Upcoming Thematic Issue – Combined Fuel and Electricity Systems for Future Renewable and sustainable energy sources- Thematic Issue Proposal

tofesj- THEMATIC FLYER- Prof. Dr. Mohamed EL-Shimy

Recently Published Article – “Synergistic Antitumor Effect of Genitinib (Iressa®) with Flavonoids from the Scutellaria baicalensis Root on the Non-Small Cell Lung Cells”

Journal: The Open Plant Science Journal

Author(s): Y. HirataM. TatsuC. AmanoY. KawarataniM. HirataY. OhmomoY. NagaokaM. ShibanoT. SasakiS. UesatoM. Taniguchi




As was reported, gefitinib (Iressa®) showed a strong growth inhibitory effect on non-small-cell lung cancer PC-9 cells with mutant EGFR, but did not so much on A549 cells with wild-type EGFR.


We here demonstrated by isobolograms and combination index analyses that the paired combinations of gefitinib with flavonoids from Wogon (Scutellaria baicalensis root): wogonin, oroxylin A and chrysin exerted synergistic anti-tumor effects against A549 cells.


The cell cycle analyses revealed that the combination of gefitinib and oroxylin A in A549 cells induced more apoptotic cells than other paired combinations as well as gefitinib alone. Thus, it is anticipated that oroxylin A could help to enhance the remission rate in the gefitinib therapy for the patients with non-small cell cancer cells with wild-type EGFR which provide a poor prognosis.


Since the Wogon flavonoids, wogonin, oroxylin A and chrysin, accelerated the acetylation of Lysine residues of histone proteins, it is suggested that they put forth anti-tumor activities through inhibition of histone deacetylases which mediated the post-translational modification of histones.

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World Hepatitis Day (WHD) takes places every year on 28 July and brings the world together under a single theme to raise awareness of the global burden of viral hepatitis and to influence real change. Viral hepatitis is one of the leading causes of death globally, accounting for 1.34 million deaths per year – that’s as many as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis or malaria.

Bentham Open is in the forefront in creating awareness about Hepatitis through the research in the following journal:

The Open Public Health Journal


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