Bentham Open

Opening Access to Science

Recently Published Article – “On the Relationship between Theory of Mind and Syntax in Clinical and Non-Clinical Populations: State of the Art and Implications for Research”

Journal: The Open Psychology Journal

 Author(s): Elena Fontana1Mauro Adenzato12*Jacopo S. Penso1Ivan Enrici23Rita B. Ardito4




Over the years, different explanations have been given on the relationship between syntax and Theory of Mind, i.e., the ability to attribute mental states to others and predict, describe, and explain behavior based on such mental states. In the present study, we focus on the relationship between false-belief understanding as a crucial aspect of Theory of Mind, and on the ability to master the syntax of complementation, i.e., the ability to produce and comprehend sentences in a recursive way.


Our purpose is to test two main hypotheses on the relationship between false-belief understanding and the ability to master the syntax of complementation: the dependence and the independence of false-belief understanding on syntactic complementation.


We analyze studies on children with typical development, deaf children with deaf signing or hearing parents, children with specific language impairment, children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, longitudinal and training studies, and studies on adults with neuropsychological disorders.


Strengths and weaknesses of the two hypotheses are discussed and limitations of the current state of knowledge are presented. A lifespan approach taking into account both the emergence and maintenance of false-belief understanding and using both implicit and explicit false-belief tasks is proposed to face the issue discussed.

To access this article, please visit:


Recently Published Article – “Realistic Stacking Sequence Optimisation of an Aero-Engine Fan Blade-Like Structure Subjected to Frequency, Deformation and Manufacturing Constraints”

Journal: The Open Mechanical Engineering Journal

Author(s): Giacomo Canale1Stuart Andrews1Felice Rubino2*Angelo Maligno2Roberto Citarella3Paul M. Weaver4




A procedure to optimise the stacking sequence of a composite fan blade-like structure is proposed in this article. The aim of the optimisation is to minimise weight when respecting deformation, frequency and strain constraints. The literature often deals with stacking sequence optimisation of airplane wings or wind turbine blades whilst less attention has been dedicated to aero-engines fan blades, the objective of the present paper. The manufacturing constraints are also implemented in the optimisation process in order to obtain a manufacturable structure.


Stacking sequence of composite laminates can be tailored to drive the deformation towards the desired shape (potentially exploiting unbalanced laminates and their anisotropy). When optimising the stacking sequence (including blending/tapering) of an aero-engine fan blade-like structure, manufacturing constraints must be included in order to apply the results of the optimisation procedure into a “Real World” design.


To define an engineering procedure able to provide a good design point to minimise the weight of a fan blade-like structure subjected to deformation (tip extension and untwist), frequency and strain constraints.


A two-level optimisation procedure is proposed. At the first level, the stacking sequence is optimised in such a way to maximise stiffness (and therefore to minimise deformation). Less stringent limits are applied to the constraints of such a level 1 optimisation. In the second step of the optimisation, the blending/tapering of each ply of the stacking sequence is searched.


The fan blade-like structure is loaded only with a centrifugal load (the main load acting on this kind of components). The stacking sequence obtained to minimise the weight contains 42.3% of 0 degrees fibres, 19.25% of 45 degrees fibres, 19.25% of -45 degrees fibres and 19.2% of 90 degrees fibres. Blending in terms of width and length of each layer is given in the numerical results section.


When the fan blade-like structure is loaded with a centrifugal force only, in order to minimise weight by respecting untwist, tip extension, frequency and integrity constraints, no unbalance in the laminate has been found necessary. An “Optimum” point has been found after a two steps optimisation. This design point is claimed as a good industrial design point rather than as “optimum” in the mathematical sense. Such a “Best Solution” design point has been verified by exploring the design space near it. All the performance of the neighbour points has been found worse. A comparison between a quasi-isotropic laminate and a zero degreed dominated laminate has been also performed.


To access this article, please visit:



Happy Birthday Dr. J.R. Serrano!

Dr. J.R. Serrano


Dr. J.R. Serrano

Editor-in-Chief: The Open Transportation Journal

Department of Machinery and Heat Exchanger
Polytechnic University of Valencia


Recently Published Article – “Nivolumab Induced Acute Severe Toxicity in Lung Adenocarcinoma”

Journal: The Open Cancer Immunology Journal

Author(s): Josune Azcuna Sagarduy*Eider Azkona UribelarreaItziar Rubio EchevarriaSergio Carrera RevillaAlberto Muñoz LlarenaGuillermo López Vivanco




Immunotherapy has recently revolutionized the world of oncology. Nivolumab an IgG4 targeting PD-1 receptor has been approved in metastatic melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, Hodgkin lymphoma and non-small cell lung cancer. It works as a checkpoint inhibitor, allowing the immune system to clear cancer, and it is this mechanism of action which explains its toxicity also named as immmune-related adverse events.

Case Presentation:

This report describes the case of a 65-year-old female with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma treated with nivolumab. After 19º cycle she presented acute severe toxicity with pneumonitis, hypophisitis and thrombocytopenia. She was successfully treated with high dose steroids and immunoglobulins.


Immune-related adverse events associated with nivolumab are usually nonspecific, with lots of differential diagnosis. They often resolve with prompt management, however, they may get severe if treatment is not retired and systemic immunosupression with corticosteroids is initiated. As shown in this case, we must be attentive throughout the treatment and even after the end of the treatment, since not all cases occur according to what is described in the literature.

To access this article, please visit:


Recently Published Article – “Thermal Dissolution of Shenfu Sub-Bituminous Coal Promoted by Lignin”

Journal: The Open Fuels & Energy Science Journal

Author(s): Huihui Wu1Hengfu Shui1*Lei Yang1Xiaoling Wang1Chunxiu Pan1Zhicai Wang1Zhiping Lei1Shibiao Ren1Shigang Kang1Charles Chunbao Xu




Thermal Dissolution (TD) and Co-thermal Dissolution (CTD) of Shenfu (SF) coal and lignin were studied. The effect of temperature on the TD and CTD of SF coal and lignin was discussed.


The synergistic effect of SF coal and lignin in CTD was probed with the characterization of thermal dissolution soluble fraction by elementary analysis, FTIR and TG determinations.


The results suggested that TD activity of lignin was higher than that of SF coal. Both SF coal and lignin gave their maximal thermal dissolution yield (TDY) of 57.6 and 82.5%, respectively at 360oC. In CTD of SF coal and lignin process, the experimental values (expressed by EXP) of TDY and Thermal Dissolution Soluble Yield (TSY) were both higher than the corresponding calculated weighted mean values (expressed by CAL) of TDY and TSY obtained from the individual TD of SF coal and lignin, suggesting that there existed a synergistic effect in the CTD of SF coal and lignin. Both TDY and TSY in CTD were enhanced to maximal values at 360oC with (EXP-CAL) values of 3.4 and 7.5%, respectively.


There were interactions between SF coal and lignin in the CTD process. The pyrolysis of lignin at low temperature may form some intermediates such as phenoxy radicals, and these intermediates can further cause depolymerization of coal, thus promoting the TD of coal.

To access this article, please visit:


Happy Birthday Dr. Athanasia Mouzaki!

Dr.Athanasia Mouzaki ( Bentham open )

Dr. Athanasia Mouzaki

Editor-in-Chief: The Open Immunology Journal

Department of Internal Medicine
University of Patras

Recently Published Article – “Losses and Productivity Parameters for Cladding Technology with Wet-Process Sprayed Mortar”

Journal: The Open Construction & Building Technology Journal

Author(s): Denise Ribeiro dos SantosGabriela Alves Tenório de Morais*Alberto Casado Lordsleem, Jr.



Background and Objective:

The wet-process sprayed mortar is a potential solution to minimize the traditional application negative points. However, its use is still incipient and a recent technological innovation in several regions of Brazil. Few available parameters that attest gains to subsidize the budget, design, and execution of cladding are systematized. This paper aims to evaluate the industrialized mortar loss and labor productivity in the execution of internal and external cladding for buildings.


The first step was to define the elements to characterize the constructive cladding technology with mechanical projection of mortar and method for effective data collection. The second step consisted in the accomplishment of the field research, which took into account the case studies in 08 buildings under construction. The third step intended to describe the best practices highlighted in the construction works analyzed and the fourth step described the identification of actions able to succeed in the implementation and operation of the system.


The results allowed verifying industrialized mortar loss varying from 6.38% to 150.02%, as well as masons’ productivity from 0.18M’hr/m2 up to 5.91M’hr/m2. The present research also made it possible to identify factors influencing the increase in the loss indicator, such as the fresh mortar consistency, failure in the transport and control of bagged materials, and high thicknesses in the cladding layer. As for the factors that favored productivity, it is important to highlight: the experience of the masons involved, the mortar application to the windows, and good logistics for the transportation of bagged goods.


Identification of the best practices, opportunities to improve production management, and obtainment of quantitative references comprise the main contributions of this research, which may help in adoption of this technology and solution of similar problems by construction companies.

To access this article, please visit:

Recently Published Article – “Effects of Rainfall on Driver Behaviour and Gap Acceptance at Multilane Roundabouts”

Journal: The Open Transportation Journal

Author(s): Stephen IbijolaJohnnie Ben-Edigbe*




This paper filled an important gap in the behaviour of driver and gap acceptance model at multilane roundabouts by investigating their traffic performances during rainfall.


The study carried out an investigation into the impact of rainfall on driver’s behavioural changes and gap acceptance characteristics. Follow-up time headway and gap time were used as proxies.


Traffic volume, speed, vehicle type and headway data were collected at selected multilane roundabouts in Durban, South Africa. All surveyed roundabouts are within rain gauge catchment area of about 1km. Rainfall intensity was divided into three groups (light, moderate, and heavy). Dry weather data were used as control parameters.

Data Analysis:

Stepwise data analytical technique was used for ease of explanation and clarity. All model equations were tested for statistical fitness and deemed satisfactory for further analysis.


Based on the synthesis of evidence obtained from driver’s behavioural changes and gap acceptance characteristics at multilane roundabouts, the paper concluded that it is correct to suggest that rainfall would have a profound effect on follow-up time headway and critical gap acceptance. However, the effect diminishes gradually as volume to capacity ratio approaches peak traffic operation. Once the threshold value of 0.85 is reached the diminishing effect of rainfall as the sole actuator of anomalous time headway increase is noticeable.

To access this article, please visit:

Create a free website or blog at

Up ↑