Author(s): Shuaizhang Li, Jinghua Zhao, Ruili Huang, Toni Steiner, Maureen Bourner, Michael Mitchell, David C. Thompson, Bin Zhao, Menghang Xia
Kidney toxicity is a major problem both in drug development and clinical settings. It is difficult to predict nephrotoxicity in part because of the lack of appropriate in vitro cell models, limited endpoints, and the observation that the activity of membrane transporters which plays important roles in nephrotoxicity by affecting the pharmacokinetic profile of drugs is often not taken into account. We developed a new cell model using pseudo-immortalized human primary renal proximal tubule epithelial cells. This cell line (SA7K) was characterized by the presence of proximal tubule cell markers as well as several functional properties, including transporter activity and response to a few well-characterized nephrotoxicants. We subsequently evaluated a group of potential nephrotoxic compounds in SA7K cells and compared them to a commonly used human immortalized kidney cell line (HK-2). Cells were treated with test compounds and three endpoints were analyzed, including cell viability, apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential. The results showed that most of the known nephrotoxic compounds could be detected in one or more of these endpoints. There were sensitivity differences in response to several of the chemicals between HK-2 and SA7K cells, which may relate to differences in expressions of key transporters or other components of nephrotoxicity pathways. Our data suggest that SA7K cells appear as promising for the early detection of renal toxicants.
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This research article by Nixon Mendez et al. is published in Open Pharmaceutical Science Journal, Volume 3, 2016
Quercetin is a natural occurring flavonoid. Quercetin exerts a direct pro-apoptotic effect on tumor cells by blocking the growth of several cancer cell lines at different phases of the cell cycle. Quercetin derivatives have attracted considerable attention for their cytotoxicity against human cancer cell lines. This project was aimed for pharmacophore mapping of NSCLC cells by focusing on finding the structure of the receptor. The compounds were of natural origin, which are known to act on the NSCLC protein and there are notable references of such compounds in scholarly literature. Then their interaction with EGFR was studied to find one of the best potential targets. Hence, we have shown a pharmacophore based 3D QSAR study of Quercetin derivatives that are aimed at inhibiting EGFR protein. Most of the molecules proved to be effective in terms of their binding score, the best score being -9.66028 and the binding energy value, -74.45. From the 50 hypotheses obtained from Phase methodology, a robust pharmacophore model was developed statistically, the best hypothesis was obtained by calculating the regression coefficient (R2 ) for each, taking into consideration their experimental and predicted IC50 values and also taking into account their fitness and validating them using statistical calculations. The R2 value for both the training and test sets were significant for the hypothesis AAARR.1386. This pharmacophore was identified to have pharmacophore features, namely, 3 hydrogen bond acceptors and 2 aromatic rings. Thus, such a pharmacophore model provides insights into the structural and chemical features of the EGFR inhibitors of Quercetin derivatives and these compounds can be used as effective inhibitors of NSCLC cell growth. The features of the receptor, obtained from the pharmacophore model can be used in further studies to understand the molecular mechanism behind specific cancer types.
Reference: Mendez, N.; Alam, A.; et al. (2016). Structural Features of Quercetin Derivatives by Using Pharmaco-phore Modeling Approach, Pharma. Sci. J., DOI: 10.2174/1874844901603010079
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This research article by Dr. Thamer Alkhadra et al. is published in The Open Dentistry Journal, Volume 10, 2016
Planning strategies on the prevention or treatment of debilitating diseases are based on studying the Prevalence and consequences of such disease(s). Dental trauma is considered one of the most debilitating diseases due to the major consequences that it leads to. Specifically, these consequences are the loss of teeth or parts of teeth, especially when the involved traumatized teeth might be lostwith little hope of restoration. Although there are promising data that new technologies might help repairing traumatized teeth, moving forward with such techniques requires understanding of the prevalence and severity of such a problem in different countries and communities. The manuscript entitled “Prevalence of Traumatic Dental Injuries in Patients Attending University of Alberta Emergency Clinic” is the most recent report on the prevalence of dental trauma in Canada (one of the developed countries), where especially violent sports like ice hockey is frequently played. The authors describe the most important factors that are contributing to dental trauma. This report can, hopefully, lead to dental care strategies that can minimize or mitigate future dental trauma in Canada or similar countries.
Reference: Alkhadra, T.; et al. (2016). Prevalence of Traumatic Dental Injuries in Patients Attending University of Alberta Emergency Clinic, Open Dent. J., DOI: 10.2174/1874210601610010315
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Author(s): Antonio Ferreira-Sánchez, Madelyn Marrero
Eco-efficient rehabilitation of buildings and neighbourhoods should include strategies to reduce the potential environmental impact of buildings under consideration for demolishment. In this case, good construction and demolition (C&D) waste management can represent a doubly eco-efficient approach: advantage is taken of much of the building and the volume of waste is reduced during construction and demolition work.
Construction and demolition waste management in emergency situations is a subject yet to be studied in the construction sector. This kind of work, although not very common, involves major building damages and the need for punctual, partial or total demolitions. The amount of C&D waste can be a major problem to deal with, and its management during the critical first phases can determinate the progress of the rehabilitation.
Conditioned by a greater number of factors than normal construction works, the lack of time for the identification, quantification, and evaluation of C&D waste renders this type of extremely useful study.
In this work, from the case study of the emergency repair of a residential building of 40 dwellings in Seville (Spain) seriously affected by a soil displacement, Generated C&D waste are identified and the waste reduction techniques used are shown. These techniques contributed to achieve the planned objectives and to control in advance the cost.
Finally, the most important data, C&D waste quantification and the managing cost are presented in order to serve as reference for similar circumstances in the future because there areno clear references to be used.
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Author(s): Morten A. Langøy, Erik Hörnlund, Ole Jacob Næss, Rolf H. Hinderaker
The Petroleum Safety Authority (PSA) Norway will set the terms for and follow up that players in the Norwegian petroleum industry maintain a high level of health, safety and the environment and emergency preparedness, and thereby contribute to creating the highest possible value for society. Ensuring good material selection process and structural integrity is an important effort where different corrosion forms are of concern and corrosion protection measures of interest, especially in respect to major accidents.
PSA addresses corrosion in rules and regulations, requiring “robust material selection”, with reference to international standards and guidelines. The operators addressing and monitoring of the corrosion effects on the process and structural integrity by incident reporting, reviews and site audits are the key tools for PSA in assessing the corrosion challenges and control in the industry.
It is of paramount importance to avoid major accidents. The subject of this paper is to address the challenges with material degradation in ageing structures, and the challenges associated with life extension considerations. Corrosion plays a major role in this respect; especially PSA is concerned with corrosion under insulation (CUI). This paper presents some of our work in these areas.
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Childhood cancer (also known as pediatric cancer) is cancer in a child. Worldwide, it is estimated that childhood cancer has an incidence of more than 175,000 per year, and a mortality rate of approximately 96,000 per year. The most common cancers in children are (childhood) leukemia (32%), brain tumors (18%), and lymphomas (11%).
Bentham Open fully participates in the efforts to find cure and remedies for cancers in children.
Read important research studies on the topic here: https://benthamopen.com/TOCIJ/home/