RESEARCH ARTICLE – The Relationship between the Risks of Developing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Cardiovascular Diseases

Author: Carlos Sotomayor-Beltran

Journal: The Open Cardiovascular Medicine Journal




Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) has significantly increased in the past decades due to changes in lifestyles. This chronic disease is expected to be ranked in the seventh position by the year 2030 among the 15 leading causes of death. Poorly treated T2DM can be an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases as well (CVD).


We have sought to determine a relationship between the risks of developing T2DM and CVD in a healthcare facility in the district of Breña (Lima, Peru).


The Finnish Diabetes Risk Score survey and the Pan American Health Organization risk calculator were used on a sample of 150 patients. The inclusion criteria were: patient age 40-80 years, attended their medical appointment more than once, were overweight or showed cholesterol levels above normal values and lived within the catchment area of the healthcare center where the study was carried out.


Only 8.7% of our sample was at a low risk of developing T2DM, whereas the rest was at a slightly elevated, moderate and high risk. Additionally, 79.3% of the patients were at low risk of developing CVD. Using the Fisher’s Exact test, there was a significant difference (p=0.026) between the risk grading of developing T2DM and CVD.


The risk of developing CVD in our population is expected to rise in the future due to the already observed high risk of developing T2DM. It is hoped that this work serves Peruvian (and other) health authorities to bolster their prevention programs, especially focusing on lifestyle interventions (e.g. increased physical activity), which have proven to be successful and economical.

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RESEARCH ARTICLE -Development of a Multiple Coil Magneto-Rheological Smart Damper to Improve the Seismic Resilience of Building Structures

Author: Ehsan Noroozinejad Farsangi

Journal: The Open Civil Engineering Journal



The incremental research progress on Magneto-Rheological (MR) damper and its response motivated many researchers and engineers to focus on this topic in the last decade.

MR damper is classified as a semi-active vibration controlling device owing to its mechanical simplicity, low power usage, large response reduction, perfect damping mechanism, good stability, quick reaction time and robust interface.

In the current investigation, experimental studies were performed for the design, development, and testing of a new type of MR damper. A proposed approach was adopted for the magnetic generation using multi-coils to produce more shear force in the flow gap. The study investigates time history responses of the proposed system under an array of strong ground motions at both element and structure levels. Numerical hybrid simulation using OpenSees has also been carried out on a building structure to show the effectiveness of the new device.

The performance of the investigated structure equipped with the proposed system indicates a large reduction in displacement and an increase in damping force under major seismic events.

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Call for Thematic Issues – The Open Civil Engineering Journal

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“The Open Civil Engineering Journal”


★ The Guest Edited Thematic Issues are published free of charge ★

Aims & Scope:


The Open Civil Engineering Journal is an Open Access online journal which publishes research, reviews/mini-reviews, letter articles and guest edited single topic issues in all areas of civil engineering.

The Open Civil Engineering Journal, a peer-reviewed journal, is an important and reliable source of current information on developments in civil engineering. The topics covered in the journal include (but not limited to) concrete structures, construction materials, structural mechanics, soil mechanics, foundation engineering, offshore geotechnics, water resources, hydraulics, horology, coastal engineering, river engineering, ocean modeling, fluid-solid-structure interactions, offshore engineering, marine structures, constructional management and other civil engineering relevant areas.

Please send your proposal:

PERSPECTIVE ARTICLE -Evolving Rotaviruses, Interspecies Transmission and Zoonoses

Author: Yashpal S. Malik

Journal: The Open Virology Journal



Evolutionary biology has become one of the imperative determinants explaining the origin of several viruses which were either identified decades back or are recognized lately using metagenomic approaches. Several notifiable emerging viruses like influenza, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), Ebola, Hendra, Nipah and Zika viruses have become the leading causes of epidemics and losses thereto in both human and animals. The sufferings are higher due to gastroenteritis causing viruses including Astrovirus, Calicivirus, Enterovirus, Kobuvirus Picobirnavirus, Sapelovirus, Teschovirus, and many more. Notably, the majority of the emerging viruses enclose RNA genome and these are more prone for insertions/mutation in their genome, leading to evolving viral variants. Rapidity in viral evolution becomes a big hitch in the development process of successful vaccines or antiviral. The prominent gastroenteric virus is rotavirus, which is a double-stranded RNA virus with a segmented nature of genome enabling higher reassortment events and generates unusual strains with unique genomic constellations derivative of parental rotavirus strains. Although most rotaviruses appear to be host restricted, the interspecies transmission of rotaviruses has been well documented across the globe. The nocturnal bats have been accepted harbouring many pathogenic viruses and serving as natural reservoirs. Indications are that bats can also harbour rotaviruses, and help in virus spread. The zooanthroponotic and anthropozoonotic potential of rotaviruses has significant implications for rotavirus epidemiology. Hitherto reports confirm infection of humans through rotaviruses of animal origin, exclusively via direct transmission or through gene reassortments between animal and human strain of rotaviruses. There is a need to understand the ecology and evolutionary biology of emerging rotavirus strains to design effective control programs.

Call for Thematic Issues: The Open Atmospheric Science Journal

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“The Open Atmospheric Science Journal”


The Guest Edited Thematic Issues are published free of charge ★

Aims & Scope:

The Open Atmospheric Science Journal is an Open Access online journal, which publishes reviews/mini-reviews, research articles, letters and guest edited thematic issues in all areas of climate research and atmospheric science. The journal’s coverage includes studies on atmospheric environmental issues. Topics include the following:

  • Weather systems and prediction
  • Climate dynamics and variability
  • Satellite meteorology
  • Remote sensing
  • Air chemistry and air pollution
  • Cloud microphysics and precipitation
  • Severe weather and natural atmospheric hazards

The Open Atmospheric Science Journal a peer reviewed journal, is an important and reliable source of current information on developments in the field of atmospheric sciences. Emphasis is placed on publishing quality papers rapidly, and making them freely available to researchers worldwide.

Please send your proposal:

RESEARCH ARTICLE – Night-time Noise Levels and Patients’ Sleep Experiences in a Medical Assessment Unit in Northern England

Author: Felicity Astin

Journal: The Open Nursing Journal





Hospital in-patients need sleep so that restorative process and healing can take place. However, over one third of in-patients experience sleep disturbance, often caused by noise. This can compromise patients’ perceptions of care quality and cause physical and psychological ill health.


To assess 1) in-patients sleep quality, quantity, reported sources of sleep disturbance and their suggestions for improvement 2) objectively measure decibel levels recorded at night.


This descriptive study conducted in a Medical Assessment Unit used multi-methods; a semi-structured ‘sleep experience’ questionnaire administered to a purposive sample of in-patients; recording of night-time noise levels, on 52 consecutive nights, using two calibrated Casella sound level meters.


Patient ratings of ‘in-hospital’ sleep quantity (3.25; 2.72 SD) and quality (2.91; 2.56 SD) was poorer compared to ‘home’ sleep quantity (5.07; 2.81 SD) and quality (5.52; 2.79 SD). The difference in sleep quality (p<0.001) and quantity (p<0.001) ratings whilst in hospital, compared to at home, was statistically significant. Care processes, noise from other patients and the built environment were common sources of sleep disturbance. Participants’ suggestions for improvement were similar to interventions identified in current research. The constant noise level ranged from 38-57 decibels (equivalent to an office environment), whilst peak levels reached a maximum of 116 decibels, (equivalent to banging a car door one metre away).


The self-rated patient sleep experience was significantly poorer in hospital, compared to home. Noise at night contributed to sleep disturbance. Decibel levels were equivalent to those reported in other international studies. Data informed the development of a ‘Sleep Smart’ toolkit designed to improve the in-patient sleep experience.




CALL FOR PAPERS –The Open Microalgae Biotechnology


CALL FOR Papers! 💡
“The Open Microalgae Biotechnology”

All articles would be published FREE of all open access fees if submitted by December 31st, 2020. ★

Aims & Scope:

The Open Microalgae Biotechnology is an international journal, which publishes research articles, reviews, letters and guest edited single topic issues in all areas of Microalgal Biotechnology.

The journal encourages submissions related to the following fields:

  • Fundamentals (morpho-physiological, structural and metabolic aspects, synthetic biology)
  • Microalgae-based processes (culture conditions and production systems, wastewater treatment, CO2 capture and use, harvesting techniques, extraction and purification of biomolecules)
  • Microalgae-based products (single-cell protein, single-cell oil, pigments, bioactive proteins, peptides and amino acids, bioactive polysaccharides, sterols, bioplastics, UV-Screening compounds, volatile organic compounds, biofertilizers, biofuels, novel molecules, biogas, biodiesel, bioethanol, biohydrogen, biocrude oil)
  • Engineering approaches applied to microalgal processes and products (process integration applied to microalgal systems, process intensification applied to microalgae bioproducts, microalgal biorefineries, techno-economic analysis of microalgae processes and products, life-cycle assessment, exergy analysis, scale-up of microalgae-based processes)

The editorial board will consider papers for publication based on novelty, their immediate or future impact on microalgae-based processes and products, and their contribution to the advancement of applied phycology. Theoretical papers will be judged based on the novelty of the approach and their potential impact, or on their novel capability to predict and elucidate experimental observations.

Please send your proposal:

RESEARCH ARTICLE – Inertial Forces Acting on a Propeller of Aircraft

Author: R. Usubamatov

Journal: The Open Aerospace Engineering Journal





Aerospace vehicles use propellers with the different design that possess gyroscopic properties. Recent investigations in the area of gyroscope theory have demonstrated that the gyroscope properties are based on the action of the centrifugal, common inertial, and Coriolis forces of the distributed mass elements of the spinning rotor, as well as the change in the angular momentum.


The combined action of the interrelated inertial forces on the propellers presents the interests for the design of the blades. The objective of the manuscript is the derivation of mathematical models for the inertial torques acting on the spinning propellers that enable computing the stresses of the blades and increasing their reliability.


The inertial torques generated by the masses of the rotating blades acting on the propellers are represented by mathematical models in L. Euler’s form.


The inertial torques are generated by the several inertial forces of the propeller’s blades and hub and manifested the fluctuation of the variable resistance and precession torques acting around different axes of the propeller. Derived mathematical models for the inertial torques are new and should be used for the computing forces and stresses acting on the propellers of the aircraft.


The mathematical models for the torques acting on the propellers consider the several inertial forces of the rotating masses that manifest their gyroscope properties. Derived mathematical models for inertial torques enable for computing the stresses of the aircraft propellers and clearly demonstrate the physical principles and origin of the acting inertial forces.

REVIEW ARTICLE – Nutritional Evaluation of Insect’s Pupae-Larvae and its Utilization in Poultry Compound Feed

Author: Dawit M. Zegeye

Journal: The Open Agriculture Journal



This paper is aimed to review the nutritional evaluation of insect’s pupae-larvae and its utilization in poultry compound feed, using an appropriate keyword search in agricultural and biological science. The paper surveys previous studies on the nutrient composition of insect’s pupae-larvae and its utilization in poultry compound feed. The literature review shows that most of the insect species have higher nutritional values and amino acid profiles than the regularly used feed such as fishmeal and soybean meal. In addition, studies find that the broiler chicken quality is not affected or even improved in some scenarios when insect-based feed substitutes the conventional feed by 10% – 100%. However, the growth performance of laying chickens is limited using the insect-based feed.

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RESEARCH ARTICLE – Bird Diversity in Nensebo Moist Afromontane Forest Fragment, South Eastern Ethiopia.

Author: Girma Mengesha

Journal: The Open Ornithology Journal



Birds are one component of biodiversity. Ethiopia is rich in biodiversity resources. The avian diversity record is far from complete. There is no scientifically documented information on bird species composition and abundance at Nensebo forest. The objective of the study was to assess species composition, relative abundance and distribution of birds at Nensebo forest in southern Ethiopia.


We employed a stratified random sampling technique with our study area stratified into two dominant habitat types: moist Afromontane forest and modified habitat. Within strata, we established 20 transect lines of 1km length and 0.25km width to sample 27.75% of the study area. We used line transect count methods aided by binoculars to estimate avian species diversity and distribution. We employed quantitative biodiversity indices, such as Shannon wiener diversity indexes to compare species diversity among habitat types and two way ANOVA to analyze the effect of season and habitat on bird species richness and abundance.


A total of 105 bird species consisting of 1 endemic, 8 near endemic, 1 globally threatened and 9 Palearctic migrants were recorded in Nensebo forest. Species richness and abundance varied between habitat types in Nensebo forest with mean species richness greater in modified habitat (mean= 4.70 ±1.65) as compared to moist Afromontane forest habitat (mean= 3.95 ±4.12, F=94.66 P<0.001). Additionally, modified habitat (Shannon diversity index= 4.131) harbored higher diversity of birds as opposed to Afromontane forest habitat (Shannon diversity index=3.79).


The Nensebo forest has high avian species diversity including several endemic and endangered species revealing the importance of this site for bird conservation. Although we found that habitat heterogeneity favored bird species diversity, moist Afromontane habitat is critical for forest obligate species. Hence, sustainable bird conservation strategies including land use planning should be initiated for this area.


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