Recently Published Article – “Palmprint Identification Using Image Reconstruction Based Double DBNs”

Journal: The Open Cybernetics & Systemics Journal

Author(s): Xin Pan, Dandan Zhao, Tong Chen, Jiangping Liu, Zhihong Yu, Heru Xue



A novel approach of palmprint recognition using image reconstruction based on double DBNs (IR-DDBN) was proposed in this study, as principal component analysis (PCA) ignores the higher order statistics in feature extraction. Three main steps were involved in the algorithm. Firstly, whitening PCA was utilized to extract the prominent characteristics of the original palmprint image. The second step included reconstructing the original image and calculating the residual image for the residual features between the original and reconstructed images. Finally, the double DBNs were used for classification. The experimental results demonstrated better performance of the proposed algorithm by comparing with the traditional algorithms (PCA, LBP, HOG and DBN) with higher recognition rates, especially for relatively small training samples.

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Recently Published Article – “From Macro to Microscopic Trip Generation: Representing Heterogeneous Travel Behavior”

Journal: The Open Transportation Journal

Author(s): Rolf Moeckel, Leta Huntsinger, Rick Donnelly




In four-step travel demand models, average trip generation rates are traditionally applied to static household type definitions. In reality, however, trip generation is more heterogeneous with some households making no trips and other households making more than a dozen trips, even if they are of the same household type.


This paper aims at improving trip-generation methods without jumping all the way to an activity-based model, which is a very costly form of modeling travel demand both in terms of development and computer processing time.


Two fundamental improvements in trip generation are presented in this paper. First, the definition of household types, which traditionally is based on professional judgment rather than science, is revised to optimally reflect trip generation differences between the household types. For this purpose, over 67 million definitions of household types were analyzed econometrically in a Big-Data exercise. Secondly, a microscopic trip generation module was developed that specifies trip generation individually for every household.


This new module allows representing the heterogeneity in trip generation found in reality, with the ability to maintain all household attributes for subsequent models. Even though the following steps in a trip-based model used in this research remained unchanged, the model was improved by using microscopic trip generation. Mode-specific constants were reduced by 9%, and the Root Mean Square Error of the assignment validation improved by 7%.

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Recently Published Article – “Features of Maternal HIV-1 Associated with Lack of Vertical Transmission”

Journal: The Open Virology Journal

Author(s): Nafees Ahmad, Aamir N. Ahmad, Shahid N. Ahmad



HIV-1 is transmitted from mother-to-child (vertical transmission) at an estimated rate of approximately 30% without any antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, administration of ART during pregnancy considerably diminishes the rate of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1, which has become a standard of perinatal care in HIV-infected pregnant females in developed countries. Moreover, a majority of children born to HIV-infected mothers are uninfected without any ART. In addition, characteristics of HIV-1 and/or cellular factors in the mothers may play a role in influencing or preventing vertical transmission. Several studies, including from our laboratory have characterized the properties of HIV-1 from infected mothers that transmitted HIV-1 to their infants (transmitting mothers) and compared with those mothers that failed to transmit HIV-1 to their infants (non-transmitting mothers) in the absence of ART. One of the striking differences observed was that the non-transmitting mothers harbored a less heterogeneous HIV-1 population than transmitting mothers in the analyzed HIV-1 regions of p17 gag, env V3, vif and vpr. The other significant and distinctive findings were that the functional domains of HIV-1 vif and vpr proteins were less conserved in non-transmitting mothers compared with transmitting mothers. Furthermore, there were differences seen in two important motifs of HIV-1 Gag p17, including conservation of QVSQNY motif and variation in KIEEEQN motif in non-transmitting mothers compared with transmitting mothers. Several of these distinguishing properties of HIV-1 in non-transmitting mothers provide insights in developing strategies for preventing HIV-1 vertical transmission.

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World Water Day 2017!


International World Water Day is held annually on 22 March to highlight the importance of freshwater and advocating for the sustainable management of freshwater resources. It is an international observance and an opportunity to learn more about water related issues.

Following is the journal of Bentham Open related to this vital day: The Open Agriculture Journal

World Down Syndrome Day 2017!


World Down Syndrome Day (WDSD) is meant to spread global awareness of Down Syndrome which is caused by triplication (trisomy) of the 21st chromosome. Down syndrome is a rare chromosomal mutation that has has a significant impact on the affected person as well as the people around them. Being a genetic disorder, Down syndrome is observed in populations regardless of racial, gender and socio-economic lines.

Bentham Open supports on going research to counter Down Syndrome.

Press Release for EurekAlert! Clinical genetic evaluation of patients with auditory neuropathy spectrum

This research article by Dr. Guilherme M. de Carvalho et al. has been published in The Open Neurology Journal, Volume 10, 2016

Hearing loss – a form of auditory neuropathy – is the most prevalent sensory disease in humans, caused by a variety of genetic and environmental factors. Auditory neuropathy is a complex set of disorders and needs to be studied and understood in a multidisciplinary context.

The non-syndromic hearing loss is about 70% of hereditary cases. Different inheritance patterns are observed, but theautosomal recessive forms are the most frequent. The heterogeneity of autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss is extremely high, for which approximately 71 loci have been described and 40 genes associated with hearing loss have been identified up to this moment.

Auditory neuropathy is a type of hearing loss that constitutes a change in the conduct of the auditory stimulus by the involvement of inner hair cells or auditory nerve synapses. It is characterized by the absence or alteration of waves in the examination of brainstem auditory evoked potentials, with positives findings related to otoacoustic and/or cochlear microphonic. At present, four loci associated with nonsyndromic auditory neuropathy have been mapped: Autosomal recessive deafness?9 [DFNB9, the otoferlin (OTOF) gene] and autosomal recessive deafness?59 [DFNB59; the pejvakin (PJVK) gene], associated with autosomal recessive inheritance; the autosomal dominant auditory neuropathy gene [AUNA1, the diaphanous?3 (DIAPH3) gene] and AUNX1, linked to chromosome X.

Furthermore, mutations of connexin 26 [the gap junction β2 (GJB2) gene] have also been associated with the disease. OTOF gene mutations exert a significant role in auditory neuropathy. More than 80 pathogenic mutations have been identified in individuals with non?syndromic deafness in populations of distinct origins, with an emphasis on the p.Q829X mutation, which was found in ~3% of cases of deafness in the Spanish population. The identification of genetic alterations responsible for auditory neuropathy is one of the challenges contributing to understand the molecular bases of the different phenotypes of hearing loss.

Thus, the present study investigates molecular changes in the OTOF gene in patients with auditory neuropathy, and attempts to develop a DNA chip for the molecular diagnosis of auditory neuropathy using mass spectrometry for genotyping.

Genetic alterations were investigated in 47 patients with hearing loss and clinical diagnosis of auditory neuropathy, and the c.35delG mutation in the GJB2 gene was identified in three homozygous patients, and the heterozygous parents of one of these cases.

Additionally, OTOF gene mutations were tracked by complete sequencing of 48 exons, although these results are still preliminary. Studying the genetic basis of auditory neuropathy is of utmost importance for obtaining a differential diagnosis, developing more specific treatments and more accurate genetic counseling. The aim of this study is to investigate molecular changes in otoferlin gene (OTOF) in patients with auditory neuropathy, search for other genetic and molecular changes that may be related to auditory neuropathy, describe the clinical data of patients with clinical neuropathy diagnosis hearing followed at Unicamp Otolaryngology Department and detail the subgroup of patients undergoing treatment with cochlear implants. Mutation of GJB2 gene is present in 7.5% of patients studied in this project (p> .05) and any mutation at OTOF gene was identified. Nearly 80% of patients had symptoms in the first year of life, and 53% had severe / profound hearing loss.

The cochlear implant had excellent outcomes in these patients, with excellent speech development, gain in language acquisition and the patients and their families were satisfied with this therapeutic modality. The treatment should focus on developing methods in which the patient may be able to get more skills and could interpret the audiosignals and communicate appropriately.

Auditory training and sound stimulation are essential tools in this process. There is some positive scientific evidence related to the cochlear implants and auditory neuropathy, so this treatment should be considered when there is poor or insufficient development in the acquisition and development of speech, even with appropriate therapies.

Auditory neuropathy is still as a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge, and its etiology (genetic and environmental) is still uncertain. We believe that the auditory neuropathy is a group of diseases where the electrophysiological hearing evaluation and genetics can be great tools to help the identification and selection of patients with this disorder.

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Reference: Carvalho, GM.; et al (2016). Relationship Between Patients with Clinical Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder and Mutations in Gjb2 Gene. The Open Neurology Journal ., DOI: 10.2174/1874205X01610010127

Measles Immunisation Day – 16th March 2017!


Measles is a highly contagious viral disease which affects mostly children. It is one of the leading causes of death and disability among young children. Measles Immunisation Day is celebrated on 16th march every year to make people aware about this deadly disease and how they can deal with the same.
Bentham Open publishes research papers that present new studies related to to this particular disease. Find the latest studies in the following journal: The Open Immunology Journal