World Leprosy Day


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Leprosy is one of the most ancient illnesses afflicting humanity. It is called Hansen’s disease as well, termed after Norwegian physician, Gerhard Henrik Armauer Hansen, who disproved the existing belief at that time about leprosy being a genetic disease. He revealed that the ailment had a bacterial source. Since the beginning of mankind, leprosy sufferers have been marked out and excluded from the unaffected population. The purpose of World Leprosy Day is to alter this perception and spread awareness about prevention and the possible treatment available nowadays.

The date for World Leprosy Day was selected to match with the death anniversary of Indian independence activist, Mahatma Gandhi. Throughout his life, Mahatma Gandhi worked untiringly for the improvement of people suffering from leprosy. World Leprosy Day emphasizes on the goal of eliminating leprosy-related disabilities in children. Disabilities do not happen suddenly, but occur as a consequence of protracted period of undetected sickness.

We strongly support the efforts made by researchers worldwide to eradicate this disease from the face of earth.

Click here to find related Journal: The Open Dermatology Journal


Recently Published Article – “Job Satisfaction of Health Service Providers Working in a Public Tertiary Care Hospital of Pakistan”

Journal: The Open Public Health Journal

Author(s): Saima TasneemAyse Seyer. CagatanMehmet Zeki. AvciAhmet Celal. Basustaoglu




An effectively working health system is not possible without a satisfied workforce. Each year many dis-satisfied professionals either quit their profession or leave jobs in search of better opportunities. This is why the subject of job satisfaction has gained attention in the public health care sector and human resources in Pakistan in the recent past. This particular study was done to assess the job satisfaction of healthcare employees in the public tertiary hospital to identify the various underlying factors.


The data was collected using Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) questionnaire & analyzed using SPSS18.

Results and Discussion:

The results of the study showed that majority of the employees were satisfied with their supervisors, nature of job and colleagues but showed dissatisfaction for the rest of the factors like salaries, benefits, communication and conditions at work.


If we want to improve the quality of health services that are provided to the consumers of health system i.e. patients then we cannot ignore the significance of satisfied health workforce.

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Recently Published Article – “Shared Decision-Making for Nursing Practice: An Integrative Review”

Journal: The Open Nursing Journal

Author(s): Marie Truglio-LondriganJason T. Slyer





Shared decision-making has received national and international interest by providers, educators, researchers, and policy makers. The literature on shared decision-making is extensive, dealing with the individual components of shared decision-making rather than a comprehensive process. This view of shared decision-making leaves healthcare providers to wonder how to integrate shared decision-making into practice.


To understand shared decision-making as a comprehensive process from the perspective of the patient and provider in all healthcare settings.


An integrative review was conducted applying a systematic approach involving a literature search, data evaluation, and data analysis. The search included articles from PubMed, CINAHL, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and PsycINFO from 1970 through 2016. Articles included quantitative experimental and non-experimental designs, qualitative, and theoretical articles about shared decision-making between all healthcare providers and patients in all healthcare settings.


Fifty-two papers were included in this integrative review. Three categories emerged from the synthesis: (a) communication/ relationship building; (b) working towards a shared decision; and (c) action for shared decision-making. Each major theme contained sub-themes represented in the proposed visual representation for shared decision-making.


A comprehensive understanding of shared decision-making between the nurse and the patient was identified. A visual representation offers a guide that depicts shared decision-making as a process taking place during a healthcare encounter with implications for the continuation of shared decisions over time offering patients an opportunity to return to the nurse for reconsiderations of past shared decisions.

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The Moon and the Tide

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Relation between the Moon and the Tide

Tides denote the constant surge and drop in the ocean level as compared to dry land, caused by the gravitational pull of the moon and the sun.

Tides are caused by the gravitational attraction between the Earth and the moon. The moon attempts to tug at everything on the Earth. However, the Earth holds on to everything with a relatively greater pull. Because the water in the oceans is fluid, the moon can draw it to itself owing to the weaker gravitational pull of the Earth on it. Two high tide waves and two low tide waves occur every day. The sea is continuously alternating between high tide and low tide, and then it returns to high tide. The average time interval between the two high waves is about 12 hours and 25 minutes.

Different Kinds of Tides

Extremely high and extremely low tides, called spring tides, are caused by extraordinarily strong gravitational forces resulting from the alignment of the sun and the moon with the earth. These waves occur at the time of a full or new moon. For the duration of the moon’s quarter phases, the sun and moon are at right angles to each other and their gravitational forces are cancelled out by each other. Such tides are named neap tides.

The proxigean spring tide is an unusual, extraordinarily high tide. This very tall wave arises when the moon is both extraordinarily near the Earth (at its closest perigee, named the proxigee) and in the New Moon stage (while the Moon is in the middle of the Sun and the Earth). The proxigean spring tide happens once at maximum in 1.5 years.

Bentham Open publishes research articles about the science of water tides in a multidisciplinary context. Refer to the following journals for related content.

The Open Atmospheric Science Journal

What is a Healthy Weight?

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Usually people consider themselves overweight or obese by comparing themselves with those around them which is not correct as a healthy weight is not the same for each individual. It is influenced by a variety of elements, comprising of age, gender, body sort, bone thickness, muscle-to-fat ratio, total health form, as well as height. Additionally, a healthy weight may vary from region to region and country to country.

Body mass index

Body mass index (BMI) was designed by a Belgian mathematician, Adolphe Quetelet, who was born in 1796.

It is calculated as a result of a person’s weight in kilograms divided by the square of their height in meters. It has taken as a valuable standard for estimating a healthy mass and for doing analyses of populations.

To compute an individual’s BMI, they have to be aware of their weight and height.

As per the World Health Organization (WHO), BMI can be categorized as follows:

  • 9 and below is very thin
  • 5 is skinny
  • 5 to 24.9 is standard fit weight
  • 25 to 29.9 is bulky
  • 30 to 39.9 is very heavy
  • 40 and beyond is abnormally obese.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) observe that BMI can be handy as a screening measure, however it does not detect the body heaviness or wellbeing of an individual

Recently Published Article – “Relation Between Circulating Vitamin K1 and Osteoporosis in the Lumbar Spine in Syrian Post-Menopausal Women”

Journal: The Open Rheumatology Journal

Author(s): Sawsan JaghsiTaghrid HammoudShaden Haddad





In the past two decades, Vitamin K has been receiving more attention due to its role in bone health and metabolism. The bone mineral density does not remain steady with age, particularly declining after menopause.


This study is aimed to investigate the relationship between bone mineral density and serum vitamin K1 levels in post-menopausal women, and to evaluate serum vitamin K1 levels as a potential biomarker for postmenopausal osteoporosis.


Serum levels of vitamin k1 were measured in 23 postmenopausal osteoporotic women, and in 15 postmenopausal healthy control women using a standardized Enzyme-Linked Immune Sorbent Assay (ELISA) kit. Bone mineral density BMD was assessed at the lumbar spine.


The mean serum vitamin k1 level was significantly lower in the postmenopausal osteoporotic women group than in the normal control group (mean=0.794 vs3.61ng/ml, P< 0.0001), and serum vitamin k1 concentration was positively correlated with lumbar spine BMD among postmenopausal osteoporotic women (R=0.533, p = 0.009), and in postmenopausal healthy control (R=0.563, p = 0.02).

Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of vitamin k1 for osteoporosis were 90% and 98%, respectively (cut-off value: 0.853 ng/ml). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) value for vitamin k1 was 0.984 the odd ratio result was 18.66.


Our results suggest that vitamin K1 may contribute to maintain bone mineral density. Vitamin K1 may have a role in diagnosing post-menopausal osteoporosis. Vitamin K1 may be a valuable diagnostic as well as therapeutic marker in post-menopausal osteoporosis.

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Healthy Weight Week signifies the importance of balance diet and healthy lifestyle. Being healthy does not mean losing weight and going on a diet. It means pursuing livable and sustainable healthy lifestyle through eating well, living actively and feeling good.
Bentham Open publishes important research publications that promote this idea.

Click here to find related Journal: The Open Nutrition Journal

Dangers of Being Overweight

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Being overweight and obese might lead to various health problems which are discussed in this article.

Majority of type 2 diabetes population is overweight or obese. Being overweight may cause cells to change, making them resistant to the hormone insulin. Excess weight might also raise blood pressure since your heart has to work harder to supply blood to all of your organs. High blood pressure is also the principal reason of stroke. Extra fat could harm your kidneys, which assist in normalizing blood pressure.

Overweight or obese people usually have elevated blood pressure, cholesterol, and blood sugar that may lead to heart disease. Moreover, putting on weight as a grown-up raises the danger for numerous cancers. Fat cells might produce hormones that impact cell growth, causing cancer. Some food or drinks that cause weight gain may also cause cancer.

An overweight person usually has extra fat stored around the neck. This may make the airway smaller which may make breathing difficult or loud, or cause sleep apnea. Additionally, excess weight places added pressure on joints and cartilage causing wearing away of joints. It also causes inflamed joints which may raise the danger of osteoarthritis. Fatty liver disease and chronic kidney disease are also found in obese people. Obesity itself might stimulate chronic kidney disease and accelerate its growth.

Bentham Open publishes the following journals related to this topic:

The Open Obesity Journal