Mixed ligand copper complexes with 1,10-phenanthroline show good chemical nuclease activity and anticancer activity. Recently, tetrazole derivatives are also promising candidates for anticancer activity. Hence, it is significant to study the DNA binding and anticancer activity of two active N-donor ligands and their copper complexes.
The main objective of this study was to investigate the regioisomeric mixed ligand copper complexes response with calf thymus DNA binding and anti-toxic activity against MCF-7 cell line.
The DNA binding interactions of complexes 1-4 with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) were monitored by UV/VIS spectroscopy. The absorption spectra of the Cu complexes are compared with and without CT-DNA at 400-450 nm. The cell proliferation was measured by using the standard 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium- 5-carboxanilide (XTT) assay with four different concentrations of the compounds (5, 10, 50, and 100 mm) and cisplatin (as a positive control) was tested in triplicate for 48 h. The results obtained by the XTTassay are expressed as the average standard deviation of two experiments. The IC50 values of the complexes exhibited differential and dose-dependent inhibitory activities on the growth of MCF-7 cancer cells.
Based on the elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic moments, mass, electronic, ESR and IR spectral data, the copper is coordinated by N-atoms of 1,10- phenanthroline and pyridyl tetrazole with octahedral structure. DFT calculations of HOMO and LUMO studies showed that electron density is localized on pyridyl tetrazole ring and phenanthroline ring. The calculated DNA binding constant (Kb) values of 1-4 complexes are in the range 4.2 – 7.6 x104M-1 (Table 4) with similar binding affinity to reported copper tetrazole derivative complexes. The 1-4 complexes with CT DNA interaction are through planar phenanthroline and pyridyl tetrazole ring likely via π-stacking interactions. The IC50 values of complexes show excellent activity with 24(± 0.5); 18(± 0.5); 20(±0.5); (±0.5) and 38 (±0.8) for 1, 2, 3, 4 and cis platin complexes, respectively. After 72 h of the treatment of 1 on MCF-7 cell, IC50 values hinder the cell growth upto 24(± 0.5) µg/ml at 5 µM concentration range (Fig. 5). It is apparent from IC50 values that the order inhibition is 1 > 3 >2 > 4.
Experimental results are highly encouraging to explore the mixed ligand regio isomeric copper complexes which have shown the parallel result with Cisplatin. By proper structural modification of pyridyl tetrazole ligand, substituent better anticancer agents can be prepared.
Self-efficacy plays a major role in the behaviour of a human being by how he/she approaches a goal, task or a challenge so that a desired level of performance is produced. The objective of this paper is to review and analyse literature on self-efficacy and clinical performance among professional nurses regarding quality of care in implementation of NIMART programme.
A literature review was conducted using online resources. Search engines included EBSCO, Google Scholar, Medline, PubMed, Psych info and BIOMED Central articles and journals published between 2007 and 2017. Relevant papers on self-efficacy and clinical performance regarding the implementation of NIMART programme in South Africa were analysed.
278 papers were identified and 22 eligible papers were selected for analysis. Reviewed literature exhibited that self-efficacy is very crucial in the clinical performance of nurses in the implementation of NIMART. Self-efficacy helps to predict motivation and performance of individuals. Lack of mentoring, support and exposure to clinical practice had negative effect on nurse’s self-efficacy.
Given the paucity of information on self-efficacy and clinical performance of NIMART in the South African context, future studies are warranted to gain more understanding of self-efficacy in the clinical performance of professional nurses.
External Quality Assurance Scheme (EQAS) is the system which allows every laboratory to compare its overall performance with other internal and external existing laboratories, working in similar disciplines. Significant improvements were reported in different laboratories and countries after attending one or more of such programs. The project objective was to assess EQAS participation level in Salmonella and Shigella species that had been processed for six years under WHO-AFRO GSS EQAS program.
Samples received for Salmonella and Shigella species, as well as Campylobacter and other unknown enteric pathogens identification were directly inoculated to the suitable and selective media according to the type of organisms. Serogroups were reported using terms according to Kauffmann-White-Le Minor procedures. For antimicrobial susceptibility testing, drug diffusion method and CLSI interpretation guideline was used.
From the overall participation (2008-2013), serogrouping results were correctly reported as 62/ 71 (87%). None of the deviations was recorded for Shigella species. Participation for Campylobacter species was only twice per six years, in 2009 and 2010; the results of agreement with the expected values were ½ (50%) and 2/2 (100%) respectively. In line with this, the antimicrobial susceptibility participation was correctly reported as 320/356 (89.9%).
Even though everyone has gained knowledge and awareness about the benefits of EQAS by default, its acceptance and implementation in developing countries are less communicated and exercised. The final recommendation will be that all higher officials and policymakers in the field have to give attention to it and allocate adequate budget on a continuous basis.
Atrophic glossitis is a condition characterised by absence of filiform or fungiform papillae on the dorsal surface of the tongue. Consequently, the ordinary texture and appearance of the dorsal tongue, determined by papillary protrusion, turns into a soft and smooth aspect.
Throughout the years, many factors, both local and systemic, have been associated with atrophic glossitis as the tongue is currently considered to be a mirror of general health. Moreover, various tongue conditions were wrongly diagnosed as atrophic glossitis. Oral involvement can conceal underlying systemic conditions and, in this perspective, the role of clinicians is fundamental.
Early recognition of oral signs and symptoms, through a careful examination of oral anatomical structures, plays a crucial role in providing patients with a better prognosis.
Much of the demand for nitrogen (N) in cereal cropping systems is met by using N fertilisers, but the cost of production is increasing and there are also environmental concerns. This has led to a growing interest in exploring other sources of N such as biological N2 fixation. Non-symbiotic N2 fixation (by free-living bacteria in soils or associated with the rhizosphere) has the potential to meet some of this need especially in the lower input cropping systems worldwide. There has been considerable research on non-symbiotic N2 fixation, but still there is much argument about the amount of N that can potentially be fixed by this process largely due to shortcomings of indirect measurements, however isotope-based direct methods indicate agronomically significant amounts of N2 fixation both in annual crop and perennial grass systems. New molecular technologies offer opportunities to increase our understanding of N2-fixing microbial communities (many of them non-culturable) and the molecular mechanisms of non-symbiotic N2 fixation. This knowledge should assist the development of new plant-diazotrophic combinations for specific environments and more sustainable exploitation of N2-fixing bacteria as inoculants for agriculture. Whilst the ultimate goal might be to introduce nitrogenase genes into significant non-leguminous crop plants, it may be more realistic in the shorter-term to better synchronise plant-microbe interactions to enhance N2fixation when the N needs of the plant are greatest. The review explores possibilities to maximise potential N inputs from non-symbiotic N2 fixation through improved management practices, identification of better performing microbial strains and their successful inoculation in the field, and plant based solutions.
To identify the strategies for the prevention of burnout syndrome in nurses; and discuss the results for future interventions that can decrease burnout in these professionals.
An integrative review of the literature.
PubMed, Lilacs, Medline, Scielo, and Science Direct, from April 2018 to July 2018.
The sources were in all 553 references were found. The following guiding question was: Which interventions for the prevention of burnout in nurses have been applied and have obtained high effectiveness?
Based on the inclusion and exclusion factors, 30 studies were selected for analysis. The studies were categorized in individual, group and organizational, being the studies with actions in groups those of greater prevalence.
The actions used to cope with burnout were, for the most part, effective, with some demonstrating greater success than others. From the 30 reviewed studies, the results did not obtain satisfactory improvement in burnout in only three interventions: 1) Systematic nursing supervision; 2) Basic nursing care; and 3) Psycho-oncological training program.
This paper proposed a Small Buckling-Restrained Brace (SBRB) for the ductile truss moment frames and is called here as the Double Braced Truss Moment Frames (DB-TMF). The braces are located at the edge of the truss girder and are only placed around the building perimeter. The braces work in pair as a weak element (structural fuses) and is expected to effectively absorb the seismic energy. The proposed DB-TMF system is an extended development of the Knee Braced Truss Moment Frames (KB-TMF). The DB-TMF system is expected to carry the whole seismic loads, while the rest of the frame is designed to carry only the gravity loads.
To study the performance of the proposed DB-TMF system, non-linear finite element analysis was carried out using the DRAIN-2DX package. From the analysis with various time history records, it was found that the drift ratio of the DB-TMF system is lower than the allowed story drift. The roof-top displacement shows an asymptotic behavior. The shape of the hysteresis curve tends to have a pinching shape. However, the cumulative ductility of the proposed system satisfies the requirements as a hysteretic structure. In the event of an earthquake, only the SBRB and the chords adjacent to the column element are damaged while the rest of the structural elements remain elastic which is expected.
Results and Conclusion:
Based on the performance evaluation of the DB-TMF system, the DB-TMF system is suitable for moderate seismic region and has smaller dimension steel sections compared to the KB-TMF system.