The objective of this study is to compare and explain the process and time-cost of passenger transportation by an international bus crossing three border gates between Laos and Vietnam, which are the (1) Nam Phao-Cau Treo (2) Na Phao – Cha Lo and (3) Dansavanh – Lao Bao border gates.
The target groups of the research selected by purposive sampling are land passenger transportation service companies and land transport passengers, who, through interviews and observations, are the Key Informants (KIs).
The results reveal that (1) there are many routes and bus companies that provide local and international passenger services. The main group of passengers is Vietnamese crossing into Laos and linking to Thailand. (2) The international bus service across the Cha Lo-Na Pao border gates is shorter than the other pair border gates (3) The information system for transportation is inefficient (4) The single window system policy at Dansavanh – Lao Bao border gates can reduce the immigration checkpoint process by about 30 – 60 minutes.
Therefore, the governments of Laos, Vietnam and Thailand should focus on intergrating transportation policy, such as employing one bus from Vietnam to Thailand per day starting in Vietnam and traveling to Thailand, crossing at the Na Phao-Cha Lo border gates and reducing the time at the immigration checkpoint in order to enhance and support economic cooperation in this region.
YlbF and YmcA are two essential proteins for the formation of biofilm, sporulation, and competence in Bacillus subtilis. In these two proteins, a new protein domain called com_ylbF was recently discovered, but its role and protein function has not yet been established.
In this study, we identified and performed an “in silico” structural analysis of the YheA protein, another com_ylbF-containing protein, in the opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus aureus.
The search of the yheA gene was performed using BLAST-P and tBLASn algorithms. The three-dimensional (3D) models of YheA, as well as YlbF and YmcA proteins, were built using the I-TASSER and Quark programs. The identification of the native YheA in Staphylococcus aureus was carried out through chromatography using the FPLC system.
We found that YheA protein is more widely distributed in Gram-positive bacteria than YlbF and YmcA. Two new and important characteristics for YheA and other com_ylbF-containing proteins were found: a highly conserved 3D structure and the presence of a putative conserved motif located in the central region of the domain, which could be involved in its function. Additionally, we established that Staphylococcus aureus expresses YheA protein in both planktonic growth and biofilm. Finally, we suggest renaming YheA as glutamine-rich protein (Qrp) in S. aureus.
The Grp (YheA), YlbF, and YmcA proteins adopt a highly conserved three-dimensional structure, harboring a protein-specific putative motif within the com_ylbF domain, which possibly favors the interaction with their substrates. Finally, Staphylococcus aureus expresses the Grp (YheA) protein in both planktonic and biofilm growth.
Polyp shapes play an important role in colorectal diagnosis. However, endoscopy images are usually composed of nonrigid objects such as a polyp. Hence, it is challenging for polyp shape recovery. It is demanded to establish a support system of the colorectal diagnosis system based on polyp shape.
Shape from Shading (SFS) is one valuable approach based on photoclinometry for polyp shape recovery. SFS and endoscope image are compatible on the first sight, but there are constraints for applying SFS to endoscope image. Those approaches need some parameters like a depth from the endoscope lens to the surface, and surface reflectance factor . Furthermore, those approaches assume the whole surface which has the same value of for the Lambertian surface.
This paper contributes to mitigating constraint for applying SFS to the endoscope image based on a cue from the medical structure. An extracted medical suture is used to estimate parameters, and a method of polyp shape recovery method is proposed using both geometric and photometric constraint equations. Notably, the proposed method realizes polyp shape recovery from a single endoscope image.
From experiments it was confirmed that the approximate polyp model shape was recovered and the proposed method recovered absolute size and shape of polyp using medical suture information and obtained parameters from a single endoscope image.
This paper proposed a polyp shape recovery method which mitigated the constraint for applying SFS to the endoscope image using the medical suture. Notably, the proposed method realized polyp shape recovery from a single endoscope image without generating uniform Lambertian reflectance.
Granular Cell Tumors (GCTs) of the orbit are rare-entity soft-tissue tumors, and few reports have been published in the literature. The treatment of the choice is total excision. Early diagnosis prior to surgery is valuable for the distinction of malignant from benign tumor.
We report a case of a 55-year-old woman with a solitary slow-growing mass in the right orbit with the involvement of the rectus inferior muscle, and present a review of the recent literature. The lesion had a diameter of 1 cm and was noticed 2 years before the examination. Excisional biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of GCT. The tumor was resected through a retroseptal transconjunctival approach. The final histological examination revealed findings characteristic of GCT, including positive reaction for protein S-100, SOX10, and calcitonin and negative reaction for desmin, myogenin, Smooth Muscle Antigen (SMA), Melan-A, and HMB-45. There were no signs of malignancy in this sample. Disturbance of motility was not noted by the patient after surgery.
GCT should be included in the differential diagnosis of intraorbital lesions, particularly those that involve the orbit muscles. A biopsy is recommended before surgical resection, to exclude malignancy and prevent radical resection.
Human dentin matrix could be considered an excellent alternative to autologous or heterologous bone graft. Autologous tooth graft has been proposed since 1967 when the osteoinduction properties of autogenous demineralized dentin matrix were discovered.
The preparation technique to transform autologous teeth in suitable grafting material still represents the fundamental step of the whole procedure.
The aim of the present study was to test an innovative medical device that could obtain tooth graft materials starting from the whole tooth of the patient. 15 consecutive cases of tooth grafting procedures were performed with a mean follow up period of 18 months.
In all cases, after 6 months of healing, the defects were almost completely filled by newly formed hard tissue. The new tissue was examined after 6 months, both from a radiological point of view by CBCT scans and from a clinical observation. It showed a compactness similar to the medium-density bone. No signs of inflammations were observed. No infective complications were recorded during the post-operative healing. No graft particles or grains were visible in the regenerated bone structure that appeared homogeneous and uniform.
The results of the present study showed favorable bony healing in guided regenerative surgery procedures using autologous tooth graft. Future studies with long follow up period are needed in order to better evaluate the potential of demineralized dentin autografts.
Different physical examination tests have been used to preoperatively determine both the presence and size of a primary subscapularis tear. On the contrary, no clinical trial has yet been published to assess the diagnostic validity of the aforementioned tests in diagnosing subscapularis retears after arthroscopic subscapularis repair.
To investigate the diagnostic value of the most commonly used clinical tests in the diagnosis of subscapularis tendon retears after arthroscopic repair.
A retrospective (prospectively collected data) case series involving 37 patients who were suffering from symptomatic complete subscapularis tendon tear was conducted. All patients underwent an all-arthroscopic subscapularis repair with the same operative technique. They were postoperatively evaluated (final end point of follow-up: 12 months) with the use of ultrasound, Constant-Murlay score (CS), bear hug test, internal rotation lag sign, Napoleon test and lift-off test. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative prognostic values were calculated for each test.
Shoulder function was significantly improved according to the final CS. The internal rotation lag sign was the most sensitive for the diagnosis of postoperative subscapularis retears, while the Napoleon sign had the highest specificity. Although postoperative clinical tests yielded no false negative findings, they were poorly predictive as for new ruptures. Ten patients (27%), who were found with a positive (for re-rupture), postoperative, clinical test, had a sonographically intact subscapularis tendon repair.
We strongly support the use of subscapularis-specific clinical tests as a composite, in combination with a specific interpretation of their results. If all tests are found negative for retear, then we could assume that the arthroscopic repair remains intact and no further diagnostic examination might be necessary. On the contrary, if at least one subscapularis-specific clinical test is positive for retear, then the patient will likely require additional imaging control for definite diagnosis.
Congenital scoliosis is a three-dimensional deformity of the spine including a frontal plane deviation of the spine caused by malformations of vertebrae and ribs. Early surgery is suggested even in mild cases with formation failures in the first three years of life, although there are reports that, in this group of patients, a conservative approach might be beneficial. The purpose of this case report is to document the long-term outcomes of a patient with failures of formation and with a curve exceeding 50° over more than 20 years of his life.
The patient first presented at the age of 18 months with balanced failures of formation (hemivertebrae L1 left and Th 7 right) and a thoracolumbar main curve measuring 52° Cobb angle. He was treated with a pattern specific Chêneau style brace for 13 years. 9 years after brace weaning he presented for final review and assessment.
The wearing time was reported by the patient at the beginning of treatment at more than 18 hours a day. While applying this prescription of in-brace time the angle of curvature steadily decreased to age 7 at a curvature angle of 40° Cobb. Between age 7 and the 11 years old, the brace wearing time was reduced to 12 hours per day due to the low growth dynamics. With the beginning of puberty the prescription of in-brace time, should be increased again to 20 hours per day. The patient’s compliance failed to meet the in-brace prescription amount, with an actual wearing time of only 12 hours per day and the curvature increased to 58° at Risser 4. At the final clinical review and assessment at the age of 24 years, an X-ray was taken and a Cobb angle of 63° in the main curvature area was measured. The patient is satisfied with his clinical appearance and is generally pain free. Only after vigorous sports activities, does the patient feel pain in the main curvature area overnight and the following day. He reported he can avoid this pain if he applies the brace overnight. The patient describes his quality of life as ‘good’.
Patients with formation disorders should not undergo early surgery without considering high-quality brace treatment. These patients may have a nearly normal quality of life in adulthood with full participation in all activities, when the curvatures are balanced even with a high angle of curvature. This should not be applied to all cases as in those with one-sided segmentation disorders, surgery should be considered at an early stage.