RESEARCH ARTICLE:DNA Sequence Analysis of BlaVEB Gene Encoding Multi-drug Resistant and Extended-spectrum β-lactamases Producer Isolates of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Author: Mushtak T.S. Al-Ouqaili

Journal: The Open Microbiology Journal

Abstract

Objective:

Multi-drug resistance Gram-negative bacteria possessing Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase (ESBL) genes are of concern because of their resistance to third-generation cephalosporins. This study aims to investigate the molecular basis of resistance to modern β-lactams by ESBLs encoded by the blaVEB gene and the gene’s role in resistance. Also, gene sequencing was used to compare genetic similarities with global isolates using phylogenetic and cluster analyses.

Methods:

Between March and July 2018, a total of 100 Iraqi clinical isolates were examined, in this cross-sectional study, to determine their ESBL status using the double-disc synergy technique. Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCRs) were performed on extracted blaVEB genes and sequencing of the target PCR products was performed. All blaVEB sequences were compared with the available sequence data, using BLAST searches against the GenBank database.

Results:

A total of 35 isolates, comprising 5 Escherichia coli, 18 Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 12 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were confirmed to possess ESBLs; the blaVEB gene was detected in one isolate of each species. The sequencing of these genes revealed 99% similarity with the global standard genes deposited in GenBank.

Conclusion:

The blaVEB gene plays an essential role in the resistance of ESBL-producing isolates to new β-lactams. Further, the sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of the genes from the P. aeruginosaK. pneumonia, and E. coli isolates revealed 99% similarity with the GenBank global standard genes.

 

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RESEARCH ARTICLE:Clinico-Pathological Study of Adenovirus Associated with Respiratory Infections in Children

Author: Maysaa El Sayed Zaki

Journal: The Open Microbiology Journal

Abstract

Background:

Adenovirus is associated with respiratory tract infections in children worldwide. However, there is insufficient data about adenovirus infections in Egyptian children and the genotypes present in this infection.

Objective:

The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of adenovirus and its genotypes in respiratory tract infection in children by real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).

Methods:

The study was a cross-sectional study that included 100 children complaining of respiratory tract infections signs and symptoms. Laboratory investigation for adenovirus included real-time polymerase chain reaction and genotypes detection by Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).

Results:

Adenovirus was detected by PCR for fiber gene in 11% with genotype 3 in 6 samples (54.5%) and genotype 7 in 5 samples (45.5%) positive for adenovirus by Multiplex PCR. The main presenting symptoms and signs in children with adenovirus detected by PCR were cough, fever, wheezing, and croups (90.9%, 81.1%, 63.6%, and 63.6%, respectively). The diagnosis in children with adenovirus was pneumonia in 72.7% and bronchitis in 27.7%. There were statistically insignificant differences in demographic, clinical, and hematological parameters between children with adenovirus and children negative to adenovirus by PCR.

Conclusion:

The clinical characteristics of respiratory infections with adenovirus vary upon the age of the patients and the immune status. Therefore, there is a requirement for an extensive study of adenovirus in respiratory infections in children with different ages and immune status.

 

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RESEARCH ARTICLE: Phytochemicals from Citrus Limon Juice as Potential Antibacterial Agents

Author: Bechan Sharma

Journal: The Open Bioactive Compounds Journal

Abstract

Background:

Citrus limon (lemon) belongs to the Rutaceae family and has great therapeutic applications. The chemical ingredients of C. limon have been used in the formulation of several ethnic herbal medicines. The application of antibiotics has shown the development of drug resistance in antibacterial drugs. Due to the drug-resistant nature of microorganisms, there is an urgent need to develop a novel drug active against wildtype and MDR resistant strains of pathogens.

Aim:

The present study is an endeavor to characterize the juice of C. limon towards its total antioxidants potential activity (FRAP), DPPH and antibacterial efficacy.

Methods and Materials:

The antimicrobial activity was evaluated using different bacterial species such as Salmonella typhi, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Citrobacter species, Shigella flexneri and Staphylococcus epidermidis.

Results:

The results of the present study indicated the antibacterial potential of C. limon fruit juice. Among the tested bacterial species, Shigella flexneri displayed maximum inhibition followed by the other microbes such as Staphylococcus epidermidis, Citrobacter species and Salmonella typhi.

Conclusion:

These findings may be utilized in the development of cost effective, safe and efficient novel drugs active against several pathogenic multi drug-resistant microorganisms.

 

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RESEARCH ARTICLE: Technology Learning in Automobile Industry: Comparative Study between Thai and Korean Companies

Author: Olga A Shvetsova

Journal: The Open Transportation Journal

 

Abstract

Background:

Currently, the issue of the company’s innovative development is relevant in all areas of activity. Automobile industry, which has one of the development vectors such as an innovative component, poses for itself the task of achieving high competitiveness through active innovative learnings and technology transfer. This direction is influenced by technological factors, which should be taken into account while developing and implementing the company’s innovative technology transfer strategy.

Automobile industry in Thailand appears to be a successful story as it plays an important role in the national economy and becomes a car-manufacturing hub of Southeast Asia as called “Detroit of Southeast Asia”. Thailand is a world-class vehicle production base such as Ford, Toyota and Nissan. However, the growth of industry depends on the performance of MNCs, which remains unclear whether Thai automobile industry could sustain the same position with its own technology capability alone.

Aim:

This paper aims to develop the suggesting on the technology learning transfer of automobile industry in Thailand based on Korea’s experience. I analyze the evolution of the automobile industry of Thailand and South Korea to identify the key drivers of auto industry’s development through learning from macro level to the firm level of the two countries.

Objective:

The study aims at investigating technological factors which influence innovative learning development of transport company and evaluating their interdependence using correlation-regression analysis.

Methods:

The correlation-regression analysis and comparative approach were used to develop the model.

Results:

Two automobile corporations from Asian region were investigated. Technological factors influencing learning development of these corporations were found; significant in explaining the factors’ interdependence was discussed.

Conclusion:

Different groups of technological factors influence on innovative learning development of automobile companies in Asia. These findings can be used as information for managers to develop strategic programs to improve knowledge transferring process in Asian automobile companies.

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RESEARCH ARTICLE: Is Transferrin Saturation a Useful Marker of Iron Metabolism in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease Treated with Hemodialysis?

Author: Ewa Kwiatkowska

Journal: The Open Urology & Nephrology Journal

Abstract

Background:

According to the currently applicable KDIGO-2012 and ERBP 2013 guidelines, iron metabolism assessments for patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) are performed using such parameters as ferritin concentration and Transferrin Saturation (TSAT). Their values are to be treated as a basis on which to decide on providing iron substitution. Patients with Stage 5 CKD on maintenance hemodialysis commonly suffer from malnutrition syndrome and inflammation. One of the markers for malnutrition and inflammation is low transferrin concentration. Our study focused on establishing what percentage of patients this applied to and whether or not the transferrin saturation figure was artificially inflated in such cases.

Materials and Methods:

The study group included 66 patients with Stage 5 CKD on maintenance hemodialysis. Such data were analyzed as complete blood count, iron and ferritin concentrations, and Transferrin Saturation (TSAT). Other parameters – age, sex, time from their first hemodialysis, and the quality of their dialysis in the last six months – the Kt/V average.

Results:

It was found that only 12% of the study group patients had their transferrin concentrations above the lower limit of normal. The TSAT value correlated negatively with transferrin concentration. Transferrin concentration correlated negatively with time from first hemodialysis or ferritin concentration, and positively with body weight. Normal transferrin concentration was only seen in patients with ferritin concentrations of up to 400 μg/L. The group was divided according to transferrin concentration of <1.5 g/L or >1.5 g/L. These groups differed significantly in ferritin concentration and transferrin saturation. (p = 0.0005 and p = 0.004, respectively). The 1.5 g/L transferrin concentration point divides patients with mild and medium malnutrition. It is also the minimum transferrin content necessary to achieve hemoglobin values ≥10 g/dL determined using the ROC curve.

Conclusion:

Low transferrin concentrations cause abnormally high TSAT values. In most patients on maintenance hemodialysis, this marker is not useful for assessing the availability of iron for erythropoiesis.

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RESEARCH ARTICLE: Management and Comorbidities in Middle-European Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Retrospective, Cross-sectional Comparison with COMORA Data

Author: Michael Schirmer

Journal: The Open Rheumatology Journal

Abstract

Objective:

To assess disease-specific characteristics and comorbidities in consecutive Middle-European Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) patients, and to compare results with international data.

Methods:

Cross-sectional retrospective analysis of consecutive RA patients from a Middle-European outpatient service. Data are compared to those of the international “Co-morbidity in Rheumatoid Arthritis” (COMORA) cohort.

Results:

80 RA patients with mean disease duration of 10.6 ± 8.3 years were enrolled within 5 months. Age was 62 ± 13 years and 75% were female. The Middle-European cohort showed slightly lower disease activity than the Austrian COMORA subcohort. 88.8% of all Middle-European RA patients were in remission or had low disease activity. Despite comparable disease characteristics, the percentage of patients ever treated with biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) was lower in the middle-European cohort (36.3%) than in the Austrian subcohort of COMORA (59%), but similar to the international COMORA cohort (39%). More smokers were in the Austrian COMORA subcohort (48.0) than in the Middle-European (22.5%) and the COMORA cohort (13%). Hypertension (38.8%) and osteoporosis (30.0%) were the most frequent comorbidities.

Conclusion:

Comparison of RA patients from this Middle-European cohort with the Austrian COMORA subcohort showed less frequent use of bDMARDs during disease course – probably according to the local referral structure. 88.8% of the Middle-European RA-patients achieved the treat-to target-aim of remission or low disease activity.

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CASE REPORT: Estimation of Infectious Medical Waste Quantities on a Per-patient Basis: An Observational Study at a Hospital

Author: Yukihiro Ikeda

Journal: The Open Waste Management Journal

Abstract:

Introduction:

Infectious medical waste management in hospitals is very important. The potential impacts of infectious medical waste discharged from hospitals on populations and society are considered greater than those of general industrial waste. Therefore, the estimation of infectious medical waste discharged from healthcare facilities should be accurate. The present study reports the quantity of infectious medical waste discharged per ward per day per inpatient by weight.

Methods:

In medical wards, the digestive surgery ward discharged the most infectious medical waste. In addition, the digestive surgery ward had the highest quantity of infectious medical waste per day per inpatient. Infectious medical waste quantity estimates based on beds were lower than those based on inpatients, with minimum and maximum underestimates of 6% and 21%, respectively.

Results & Discussion:

Infectious medical waste discharged per patient per day was low in the outpatient department. The operating room and the emergency department discharged 10-fold more infectious medical waste than the wards. The operating room, the emergency department, and the clinical inspection department accounted for 60% of infectious medical waste discharged from hospitals.

Conclusion:

Notably, there are considerable differences among departments when evaluating hospital waste, particularly in hospitals with surgery and critical care departments, which is different in the case of evaluations based on bed counts.

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