Research Article: Community Origin and Previous Use of Antimicrobials Increase the Risk of Nosocomial Multidrug-resistant Bacteria Colonisation in the Intensive Care Unit in a Brazilian Hospital

Author: Juliana S. Link

Journal: The Open Public Health Journal

Abstract:

Background:

Hospitalised patients are often surrounded by microorganisms, and antibiotic-resistant pathogens are a major and growing threat to public health.

Objective:

This study aimed to investigate the epidemiology and the risk factors for colonisation by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) in a Brazilian hospital.

Methods:

Patients in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) who underwent nasal and rectal swab cultures for the surveillance of colonisation by MDROs were evaluated in a retrospective study. MDROs were determined by routine microbiological cultures.

Results:

Of the 785 patients included in this study, 86 presented positive results for MDRO colonisation. Overall, the most frequently isolated organism was Klebsiella pneumoniae (41.9%), followed by Escherichia coli (33.7%). The main type of resistance was the production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL). The prevalence of MDRO infections was significantly associated with the patient’s origin (community or hospital-acquired). Having been submitted to previous antimicrobial drug therapy was significantly associated with MDRO infection (relative risk [RR]: 4.02 [2.60 – 6.23]).

Conclusion:

MDRO ICU colonisation was variable, with similar frequencies as other centres, and important factors, including previous hospital stay and antibiotic use, were closely related to MDRO colonisation. Therefore, control interventions should reduce their rates, especially considering the particularities of each geographic centre.

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https://benthamopen.com/ABSTRACT/TOPHJ-12-449

 

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Research Article: Congestion and Pollution, Vehicle Routing Problem of a Logistics Provider in Thailand

Author: Mohd Rizaimy Shaharudin

Journal: The Open Transportation Journal

Abstract:

Aim and Objective:

This study aims to minimise the travelling distance, operation cost in terms of fuel consumption, and CO2 emissions. It introduces the Time-Dependency Pollution-Routing Problem (TDPRP) with the implementation of the time-dependency and emission model, including constraints such as the limitation of vehicle capacity and vehicle’s speed during different time periods in Thailand. Furthermore, the time window constraint is applied for representing a more realistic model. The main objective is to minimise the total pollution generated because of transportation.

Methods:

The Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Tabu Search (TS) methods have been used to generate the optimal solution with a variety of experiments. The best solutions from all the experiments have been compared to the original solution in terms of the quality of the solution and the computation time.

Results:

The best solution was generated by using the TS method with 30,000 trials. The minimum of the total CO2 emissions was 183.9846 kilograms produced from all of the vehicles during transportation, nearly half from the current transportation plan, which produced 320.94 kilograms of CO2 emissions.

Conclusion:

The proposed model optimised both the route and schedules (multiple time periods) for a number of vehicles, for which the transportation during a fixed congestion period could be predicted to avoid traffic congestion and reduce the CO2 emission. Future research is suggested to add other specific algorithms as well as constraints in order to make the model more realistic.

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https://benthamopen.com/ABSTRACT/TOTJ-13-203

 

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Research Article: Non-Motorized Trip Pattern in Sub-Saharan Africa: Assessment of Walk Trip

Author: Ayobami A Busari

Journal: The Open Transportation Journal

Abstract:

Background:

Background:

Walking as a parent mode of transportation has received little or no attention regarding planning, design, and development, thereby leading to chaotic outcomes when it comes to controlling and future estimation in most sub-Saharan Africa countries. This necessitated the research on the pertinent factors and variables that affect walking as a means of transportation in the study area, a semi-urban industrial cluster in South-Western Nigeria.

Methods:

One Thousand five hundred (1500) information cards were distributed for seven months. This was done to accumulate information on trip patterns, modal split, walk trip volume and so on. The data obtained was analysed using SPSS version 23.

Results:

The result revealed that 53.2% of the respondent engages in a walk trip every day either to access mode, access sub-mode or for recreation purposes. The commercial zone showed the highest percentage of walk trips of 40%. The mathematical model showed that age and walk trips are inversely proportional. Based on the result of the analysis, cost, safety and exercise are the primary reason why people engage in a walking trip. The R2 value of 0.83 established the robustness of the model.

Conclusion:

The created model can be utilized for anticipating the future modular part by inputting anticipated future estimation of exploratory variables, which will also aid the planning of a better transport system for the locality. The lack of essential infrastructure poses a big problem for the utilisation of this mode of transportation.

 

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https://benthamopen.com/ABSTRACT/TOTJ-13-194

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Research Article: Effect of Oral Nutritional Supplementation on Growth in Vietnamese Children with Stunting

Author: Dung T. Pham

Journal: The Open Nutrition Journal

Abstract:

Background:

The impact of oral nutritional supplementations (ONS) is not well-elucidated in children with stunting.

Objective:

The aim is to evaluate the effect of ONS on growth in Vietnamese children with stunting.

Methods:

This 6-month, prospective, single-arm trial evaluated 121 children aged 24–48 months with stunting (height-for-age z-score [HAZ] < -2) and low weight-for-height z-score (WHZ < -1) in Vietnam. Children consumed ONS twice daily. The outcomes included the change in HAZ, WHZ, and weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) from baseline to 3- and 6 months; change in height and weight from baseline to 3- and 6 months; and the prevalence of stunting, wasting (WHZ < -2 SD), and underweight (WAZ < -2 SD) at 6 months. We also examined factors associated with a change in HAZ over the intervention period.

Results:

The mean age was 34.7 months and 49% were male. Height and weight increased from baseline to 3- and 6-months (p<0.0001). There was a significant increase in median HAZ (0.25 units), WHZ (0.72 units), and WAZ (0.65 units) from baseline to 6 months (p<0.0001). Notably, approximately 40% of children recovered from stunting at 6 months (p<0.0001). The prevalence of wasting and underweight status were also significantly lower at 6 months (p=0.0310 and p<0.0001, respectively) relative to the baseline. Lower HAZ and younger age at baseline were significantly associated with higher linear growth at 6 months.

Conclusion:

ONS helped improve linear and ponderal growth and reduce the prevalence of stunting, wasting, and underweight status in stunted children at risk of wasting.

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https://benthamopen.com/ABSTRACT/TONUTRJ-13-43

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Research Article: Evaluation of the Antioxidant Interactions Between Green Tea Polyphenols and Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs

Author: Fawaz Kurdali

Journal: The Open Agriculture Journal

Abstract:

Background:

During the freezing or canning preparation process of green grain leguminous, large amounts of shell pods are considered as agricultural organic wastes, which may be used as Green Manure (GM) for plant growth enhancement.

Objective:

Evaluation of the effectiveness of soil amended with shell pod wastes of pea (PGM) or faba bean (FGM) as GM on growth, nitrogen and phosphorus uptake in sorghum plants.

Methods:

Determination of the impact of adding four rates of nitrogen (0, 50, 100, and 150 kg N ha-1) in the form of pea (PGM) or faba bean (FGM) shell pod wastes as GM on the performance of sorghum using the indirect 15N isotopic dilution technique.

Results:

Sorghum plants responded positively and differently to the soil amendments with either GMs used, particularly, the PGM. In comparison with the control (N0), soil amendment with an equivalent rate of 3.5 t ha-1 of PGM (PGM100) or with 6.5 t ha-1 of FGM (FGM150) almost doubled dry weight, N and P uptake in different plant parts of sorghum. Regardless of the GM used, estimated values of %Ndfgm in sorghum plants ranged from 35% to 55% indicating that the use of pod shells as GM provided substantial portions and amounts of N requirements for sorghum. Moreover, nitrogen recoveries of added GM (%NUEgm) ranged from 29 to 45% indicating that N in both of GM forms were used effectively. Accordingly, equivalent amounts to 17 – 48 kg N ha-1 of inorganic fertilizer may be saved. The beneficial effect of incorporating pod shells in soil on sorghum N was mainly attributed to their N availability, besides to their effects on the improvement of soil N uptake, particularly when using PGM.

Conclusion:

The agricultural by-products of faba bean and pea pod shells could be used as GM for sorghum growth improvement by enhancing N and P uptake from soil and from the organic source.

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https://benthamopen.com/ABSTRACT/TOASJ-13-133

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Research Article: Typology of Social Network Structures and Late-Life Depression in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

Author: Akin Ojagbemi

Journal: Clinical Practice & Epidemiology in Mental Health

Abstract:

Background:

Rapid social changes and youth migration ensures a continuous drain on the social networks of the elderly in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs).

Objective:

We reviewed available literature on the relationship between social network structures and depression among community dwelling older persons in LMICs with a view to identifying patterns that might provide information for designing preventive psychosocial interventions.

Methods:

We searched the MEDLINE database through Pubmed, extracted information on the typologies of social network structures in LMICs and identified dimensions with the strongest systematic association with late-life depression, by weight, using the inverse of variance method. All analyses were conducted using the Cochrane review manager version 5.3.

Results:

Fourteen community-based surveys drawn from 16 LMIC contexts met criteria for syntheses. They included a total of 37,917 mostly female (58.8%) participants with an average age of 73.2 years. Social network size, contact with network, diversity of network, co-residency with own child, having more friends than family in the network, and prestigious standing of persons in the social network were protective structures against late-life depression. Conversely, low network diversity contributed 44.2% of the weight of all social network structures that are predictive of late-life depression.

Conclusion:

Recommendations are made for the design of new measures of social network structures in LMICs that captures the key dimensions identified. Epidemiological studies using such tools will provide more precise information for planning and prioritization of scarce resources for the prevention of late-life depression in LMICs.

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https://benthamopen.com/ABSTRACT/CPEMH-15-134

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