RESEARCH ARTICLE – Morphological and Proteomic Evaluation of Zea Mays in Response to Osmotic Stress

Author: T.B. Dikobe

Journal: The Open Biotechnology Journal

Abstract

Introduction:

Drought is the main abiotic stress responsible for crop loss worldwide. Maize (Zea mays L.) is a widely grown drought-sensitive crop used as a staple food by the growing population. Therefore, it is imperative to assess the molecular mechanisms behind drought response and tolerance in maize. Transcriptomic profiling of abiotic stress responsive pathways in various crops appeared to be an unreliable approach due to post-transcriptional modifications, while there is limited published data on molecular mechanisms of osmotic-stress response in maize. Hence our study aimed at profiling osmotic stress responsive proteins augmented by their associated morphological features in Zmays.

Materials and Methods:

In this regard, morphological and proteomic investigations were carried out on 16-day maize seedlings exposed to 5% (w/v) and 10% (w/v) polyethylene glycol(PEG) to induce osmotic-stress. Proteomics approach (one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis) compared differential protein abundance between controls and the osmotic stressed maize plants.

Results:

Morphological parameters such as plant growth, height, shoot diameter, leaf area, and colour were highly affected with PEG treatment as compared to the untreated ones. Molecular evaluation by 1D gel electrophoresis revealed that the separated protein patterns were highly expressed in the experiments than the controls. Using 2D gel electrophoresis, a total of seven and eight protein spots were revealed in experimental plants under 5% (w/v) and 10% (w/v) PEG treatment respectively while the control plants only expressed one protein. Increased drought stress resulted in a greater number of proteins with differential abundance.

Conclusion:

This study has successfully profiled the total osmotic stress responsive proteins and revealed the efficiency of proteomic tools in the qualitative detection of differential proteins from maize.

RESEARCH ARTICLE – The Presence of Microbial Air Contaminants in the Operating Theatre at a Teaching Hospital in East Coast Malaysia

Author: Ernest A. Adeghate

Journal: The Open Biology Journal

Abstract

Aim:

The aim of this study is to determine the presence of microbial air contaminants in the operating theatre at a teaching hospital.

Objective:

Airborne microbial level in operation theatre is one of the significant risks in hospital as it can increase the surgical site infection and nosocomial infections.

Background:

Duo SAS Super 360 Air Sampler was used to collect the airborne samples in triplicate each for nutrient and MacConkey agar at eight operation rooms and two corridors for morning and evening sessions. Sampling was conducted for three months and repeated every two months. Microbiological culture, gram staining and biochemical tests such as catalase test, oxidase test, coagulase test, Triple Sugar Iron Agar test, urease test, citrate test, Sulfide, Indole, Motility test, Methyl Red Voges-Proskauer test, disc diffusion test, and Albert’s stain were performed on the pure isolated culture.

Methods:

Sampling was conducted for three months and repeated every two months. Microbiological culture, gram staining and biochemical tests such as catalase test, oxidase test, coagulase test, Triple Sugar Iron Agar test, urease test, citrate test, Sulfide, Indole, Motility test, Methyl Red Voges- Proskauer test, disc diffusion test, and Albert’s stain were performed on the pure isolated culture. Bacteria that were present in the operation rooms were Bacillus spp., Micrococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. while Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii were absent. The bacteria identified in the operation theater may also cause surgical site infections and nosocomial infections to the patients, although the microbial contamination in the air of the operation theatre is low.

Results:

The bacteria identified in the operation theater may also cause surgical site infections and nosocomial infections to the patients, although the microbial contamination in the air of the operation theatre is low.

Conclusion:

Strengthening surveillance on the hygienic condition of the operation theatre and routine sampling is strongly recommended to control all possible sources and types of infection.

RESEARCH ARTICLE – Anti-diabetic Effect of Acridocarpus Orientalis

Author: Ernest A. Adeghate

Journal: The Open Medicinal Chemistry Journal

Abstract

Background:

Acridocarpus orientalis (AO) is a medicinal herb indigenous to tropical and subtropical Africa, Arabian Peninsula, and New Caledonia with reported anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.

Objective:

To determine whether AO has any beneficial effects on diabetes-induced metabolic parameters in rats.

Materials and Methods:

Diabetes mellitus was induced in male Wistar rats by streptozotocin. Diabetic rats were treated with three doses of AO extract (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg BW) for 30 days. Kidney, liver, and pancreatic tissue samples were processed for histopathology to determine the effect of AO on the cells of these organs. The effect of AO on pancreatic islet cells and serum insulin levels was also examined using immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay techniques, respectively.

Results:

AO (100 mg/kg BW) caused a marked reduction in blood glucose levels in diabetic rats compared to diabetic control on day 10 of the study. Moreover, AO (200 mg/kg BW) increased the number of insulin-positive cells with a concomitant reduction in the number of glucagon-immunoreactive cells in pancreatic islets. AO (100 mg/kg) also increased the serum level of superoxide dismutase significantly. Although the administration of AO was able to significantly decrease the diabetes-associated increases in serum creatinine and bilirubin levels, it had no effect on blood urea nitrogen, serum aspartate, or alanine aminotransferase levels. Histopathological examination showed that AO has no toxic effect on the structure of the pancreas, liver, and kidney.

Conclusion:

Our findings showed that AO could alleviate some complications of diabetes mellitus.

To access this article, please visit:

https://benthamopen.com/ABSTRACT/TOMCJ-14-132

The Open Orthopaedics Journal – Join the Editorial Board

Submit your CV at: madiha@benthamopen.com

The Open Orthopaedics Journal is an Open Access online journal, which publishes high quality research articles, reviews/mini-reviews, letters and guest edited single topic issues in all important areas of experimental and clinical research and surgery in orthopaedics. The journal encourages submissions related to the following fields:

  • Paediatric Orthopaedics, and Orthopaedic Rehabilitation
  • Arthroscopy
  • Spine and Spinal Deformities
  • Joint Replacement
  • Traumatologic Surgery
  • Sports Medicine
  • Hand Microsurgery
  • Foot and Ankle Surgery
  • Musculoskeletal Tumour Management

The Open Orthopaedics Journal – Become Executive Guest Editor

Bentham Open invites researchers to join as Executive Guest Editor for the journal, The Open Orthopaedics Journal.

The Open Orthopaedics Journal is an Open Access online journal, which publishes high quality research articles, reviews/mini-reviews, letters and guest edited single topic issues in all important areas of experimental and clinical research and surgery in orthopaedics. The journal encourages submissions related to the following fields:

  • Paediatric Orthopaedics, and Orthopaedic Rehabilitation
  • Arthroscopy
  • Spine and Spinal Deformities
  • Joint Replacement
  • Traumatologic Surgery
  • Sports Medicine
  • Hand Microsurgery
  • Foot and Ankle Surgery
  • Musculoskeletal Tumour Management

The Open Orthopaedics Journal, a peer-reviewed journal, is an important and reliable source of current information on important recent developments in the field. The emphasis will be on publishing quality papers rapidly and making them freely available to researchers worldwide.

The Open Orthopaedics Journal – Become an Ambassador

CALL FOR AMBASSADORS

Bentham Open invites researchers, scientists, faculty members, students and others relevant to join us as Bentham Open Ambassador. Following are the benefits and responsibilities of Bentham Ambassadors.

Submit your latest CV at madiha@benthamopen.net

Benefits Available to Bentham Open Ambassadors: 

  1. You will receive a Certificate of Acknowledgement for joining and rendering your services as a Bentham Open Ambassador
  2. As a Bentham Open Ambassador, you would have the possibility of having your first article published in any Bentham Open journal of your choice, at 50% discount on Open Access fee. For a listing of journals please refer to our website.   If you would refer more researchers to publish articles in our journals, we will be pleased to publish their articles at a 25% discount on our standard publishing rates.
  3. On earning 100 points you will be entitled to a 50% discount on the publication fee of your 2nd article and a full fee waiver for the 2nd article will be offered if you earn 200 points through your efforts to promote Bentham Open Publications.
  4. Your name and affiliation will be mentioned on a dedicated Bentham Open Ambassadors webpage, which will help you in your various promotional activities since your position will be visible for visitors on the website.
  5. As a Bentham Open Ambassador, you would have the possibility to get your institution listed as a Bentham Open Member Institute. An official request would be required from your institution for this. Being an author from the member institute(s), you and your colleagues (affiliated with the member institution) will receive a 50% special discount in the publication fee for your submission in Bentham Open journals and a centralized billing system for your institution can be developed. 
  6. We invite our Member Institutes to bear the Article Processing Charges (APCs) on behalf of their researchers. Each Member Institute is provided with a unique code for this provision. Affiliated researchers will need to mention this code while submitting an article.

 The responsibilities of Bentham Open Ambassadors would be to: 

  1. Introduce and promote Bentham Open journals among librarians, colleagues and researchers in your region.
  2. Encourage submission of articles to relevant Bentham Open journals, in your field, from eminent scientists.
  3. You may, if you wish, also appoint some young researchers as “Associate Bentham Open Ambassadors” to magnify this effort.

The Open Orthopaedics Journal – Become a Section Editor

Submit your CV at: madiha@benthamopen.net

The Open Orthopaedics Journal, a peer-reviewed journal, is an important and reliable source of current information on important recent developments in the field. The emphasis will be on publishing quality papers rapidly and making them freely available to researchers worldwide.

REVIEW ARTICLE – Genomic Variation and Treatment Strategies of COVID-19: A Descriptive Review

Author: Shamsher Singh

Journal: The Open COVID Journal

Abstract

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was spread across China and affected more than 180 countries worldwide to date. SARS-CoV-2 is a beta coronavirus that shows genomic similarity with bat coronaviruses. The intermediate source in human viral transmission is caused by dromedary camels for MERS-CoV and civet cats for SARS-CoV. Transmission of the virus from human-to-human is achieved through close contact with infected persons. The genome of the coronavirus consists of four structural proteins, including Spike (S), Membrane (M), Envelop (E), and Nucleocapsid (N) proteins. These structural proteins are encoded within the genome 3′ end. The spike protein is responsible for virus attachment to the host cell surface receptors (angiotensin converting enzyme-2 receptor), resulting in fusion and subsequently cell damage. The N protein, after binding, causes RNA genomic changes. The accessory proteins present in SARS-CoV open read frames (ORFs) are very similar to COVID 19. The COVID-19 infection triggered a number of deaths and even now affecting a number of confirmed cases. Coronavirus patients are characterized by pneumonia, cytokine storms, weakened lymphocytes, lymphocytopenia, and respiratory failure. However, the lack of antiviral vaccines permits emergency clinical trials since January 2020. Recently, several anti-viral drugs are being repositioned and restructured as part of an immediate investigation. In this review, we discussed the genomic sequence of SARS-CoV-2, its different features and current therapeutic strategies to combat this serious condition.

To access this article, please visit:

https://benthamopen.com/FULLTEXT/TOCOVIDJ-1-6

REVIEW ARTICLE – COVID-19 Cardiac Complication- Myocarditis

Author: Lana Maričić

Journal: The Open COVID Journal

Abstract:

Based on the clinical experience, it has been observed that when it comes to the impact of SARS-CoV-2 virus on the cardiovascular system, it is significant. In patients with COVID-19 infection, the development of myocarditis occurs a few days after the onset of fever. The mechanism of myocardial injury alone, as well as most pathologies caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, is the subject of research by many experts, but two basic ways can certainly be assumed: a direct toxic effect of SARS-CoV-2 on myocardial cells and another possible way of myocardial injury is to activate the innate immune response by releasing proinflammatory cytokines, as well as to activate the adaptive mechanisms of the autoimmune type by molecular mimicry. The approach to treatment is the same as for other viral myocarditis; it is non-specific, applied supportive treatment, such as anti-inflammatory drugs, low-dose corticosteroid therapy, and immunoglobulins. The aim of this review is to present the previous experiences of physicians around the world on the clinical presentation of myocarditis caused by COVID-19 infection, diagnostic and therapeutic approach in a specific situation of high-risk infection.

To access this article, please visit:

https://benthamopen.com/ABSTRACT/TOCOVIDJ-1-1