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Recently Published Article – “Bronchodilator Response Assessment of the Small Airways Obstructive Pattern”

Journal: The Open Respiratory Medicine Journal

Author(s): Plamen BokovClémence MartinSémia GrabaKarine Gillet-JuvinMohamed EssalhiChristophe Delclaux

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Abstract

Background:

A concomitant decrease in FEV1 and FVC with normal FEV1/FVC ratio and TLC defines small airways obstructive pattern (SAOP) and constitutes a classic pitfall of pulmonary-function-tests interpretation.

Objective:

To evaluate the prevalence of flow- (FEV1 increase≥12% and 200 mL), volume- (FVC or inspiratory capacity [IC] increase≥12% and 200 mL), flow and volume-, and non-response to bronchodilation in patients with SAOP. An additional objective was to assess whether impulse oscillometry (IOS) parameters allow the diagnosis of SAOP and its reversibility.

Methods:

Fifty consecutive adult patients with SAOP (FEV1 and FVC < lower limit of normal, FEV1/FVC and TLC > lower limit of normal) diagnosed on spirometry and plethysmography underwent the assessment of reversibility (400 µg salbutamol) on FEV1, FVC, IC and IOS parameters.

Results:

The diseases most frequently associated with SAOP were COPD and asthma (26 and 15 patients, respectively). Six patients were flow-responders, 20 were volume-responders, 9 were flow and volume-responders and 15 patients were non-responders. Overall, 26 patients had a significant improvement of IC, and 35 / 50 (70%, 95%CI: 57-83) exhibited a significant bronchodilator response. The difference between Rrs5Hz and Rrs20Hz was increased in 28/50 patients (56%, 95%CI: 42-70 with value higher than upper limit of normal) and its decrease after bronchodilator significantly correlated to FEV1 increase only, suggesting proximal airway assessment.

Conclusion:

A significant reversibility, mainly assessed on IC increase, is frequent in Small Airways Obstructive Pattern. Impulse oscillometry is of limited value in this context because of its low sensitivity.

To access this article, please visit: https://benthamopen.com/ABSTRACT/TORMJ-11-47

Recently Published Article – “An Evaluation of The Syphilis Screening Program Among Pregnant Women In Gaborone Clinics, Botswana: A Five Year Retrospective Analysis”

Journal: The Open Public Health Journal

Author(s): A.B. GaniyuL. MasonL.H. Mabuza

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Abstract

Background:

Syphilis in pregnancy is a public health problem mainly in developing countries. If untreated, it can lead to pregnancy and fetal complications. Nation-wide screening at antenatal care is an important intervention for early detection and treatment to prevent complications.

Objective:

The aim was to evaluate the proportions and trends in the syphilis screening program of pregnant women who were attending the 15 public health care facilities in Gaborone Botswana during the period 2004 and 2008.

Method:

We conducted a cross-sectional study in the antenatal care facilities in Gaborone. Data was obtained from the antenatal registers from 7th to 25th September 2009 using a structured data collection sheet. We recorded the number of pregnant women registered for antenatal care, those screened and those not screened for syphilis. The SPSS 14.0 for windows software was used for data analysis.

Results:

The overall trends in the proportions of pregnant women screened for syphilis from 2004 to 2005 increased from 87.2% (95% CI, 86.4-88.0) to 89.7% (95% CI, 89.0-90.4), compared to the 2005 to 2006 estimates that showed a declined from 89.7% (95% CI, 89.0-90.4) to 79.0% (95% CI, 77.9-80.1). Seventy five percent of the clinics showed rising trends in the proportions of pregnant women screened for syphilis from 2004-2008.

Conclusion:

There were marked variations in the trends among pregnant women screened and those not screened for syphilis in the clinics around Gaborone. The overall trend was an increase screening coverage in the years 2004-2008. There is a need to investigate the factors associated with these variations.

To access this article, please visit: https://benthamopen.com/ABSTRACT/TOPHJ-10-117

 

Upcoming Thematic Issue – Applied Mathematics and Mechanical Engineering Problems

TOMEJTHEMATIC FLYER -Waleed Abdel Kareem

https://benthamopen.com/TOMEJ/home/

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Recently Published Article – “An Application of Intervention Mapping as a Phased Approach in Developing a Family-centred Programme to Reduce Violence in the Family”

Journal: The Open Family Studies Journal

Author(s): Jill RyanNicolette V. Roman

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Abstract

Aim:

To describe the application of intervention mapping in the development of a family-centred approach to reduce violence in the family.

Methods:

Development towards a family-centred approach is described, in which only the first three steps of the five intervention mapping steps have been detailed. These three steps are unpacked as phases. Phase I, a family violence needs assessment which includes a policy analysis. Phase II determines appropriate theoretical and practical approaches through systematic reviews and lastly, Phase III as a Delphi study.

Results:

Intervention mapping as a form of programme development is inclusive of all relevant stakeholders and allows diverse engagement with family-centred information through its structured development process.

Conclusion:

Family violence should be seen as a holistic phenomenon which affects all members of the family and future interventions must be mindful of this to address family violence effectively.

To access this article, please visit: https://benthamopen.com/ABSTRACT/TOFAMSJ-9-15

 

Recently Published Article – “On the European Norms of Design of Buckling Restrained Braced Frames”

Journal: The Open Civil Engineering Journal

Author(s): Ádám ZsarnóczayTamás BaloghLászló Gergely Vigh

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Abstract

The application of buckling restrained braced frames is hindered in Europe by the absence of a standardized design procedure in Eurocode 8, the European seismic design standard. The presented research aims to develop a robust design procedure for buckling restrained braced frames. A design procedure is proposed by the authors. Its performance has been evaluated for buckling restrained braced frames with two-bay X-brace type brace configurations using a state-of-the-art methodology based on the recommendations in the FEMA P695 document. A special numerical material model was developed within the scope of this research to represent the behavior of buckling restrained braces more appropriately in a numerical environment. A total of 24 archetype designs were prepared and their nonlinear dynamic response was calculated using real ground motion records in incremental dynamic analyses. Evaluation of archetype collapse probabilities confirms that the proposed design procedure can utilize the advantageous behavior of buckling restrained braces. Resulting reliability indices suggest a need for additional regulations in the Eurocodes that introduce reasonable structural reliability index limits for seismic design.

To access this article, please visit: https://benthamopen.com/ABSTRACT/TOCIEJ-11-513

 

Recently Published Article – “Finite Element Method of Composite Steel-Concrete Beams Considering Interface Slip and Uplift”

Journal: The Open Civil Engineering Journal

 

Author(s): Jing WangXiao-Hui CongYun-Long ZhangDi Yun

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Abstract

Introduction:

In order to analyze the displacement and internal force of composite steel-concrete beams under the vertical load, The finite element solution of composite steel-concrete beams under concentrated loads considering the existence of interface slip and vertical uplift based on the basic idea of elastic mechanics was derived in this paper.

Method:

A new kind of stiffness equation of bar system was got and its correctness was demonstrated with experimental value, the problem of composite beams considering the existence of interface slip and vertical uplift was solved, avoiding to produce large amount of calculation with the body element method.

Results and Conclusion:

It can be seamlessly integrated into the current engineering design software, which provides effective help to practical engineering problems.

To access this article, please visit: https://benthamopen.com/ABSTRACT/TOCIEJ-11-531

Recently Published Article – “Extending Inferential Group Analysis in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Multivariate GLM Implemented in SPM8”

Journal: The Open Neuroimaging Journal

Author(s): Fábio S. FerreiraJoão M.S. PereiraJoão V. DuarteMiguel Castelo-Branco

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Abstract

Background:

Although voxel based morphometry studies are still the standard for analyzing brain structure, their dependence on massive univariate inferential methods is a limiting factor. A better understanding of brain pathologies can be achieved by applying inferential multivariate methods, which allow the study of multiple dependent variables, e.g. different imaging modalities of the same subject.

Objective:

Given the widespread use of SPM software in the brain imaging community, the main aim of this work is the implementation of massive multivariate inferential analysis as a toolbox in this software package. applied to the use of T1 and T2 structural data from diabetic patients and controls. This implementation was compared with the traditional ANCOVA in SPM and a similar multivariate GLM toolbox (MRM).

Method:

We implemented the new toolbox and tested it by investigating brain alterations on a cohort of twenty-eight type 2 diabetes patients and twenty-six matched healthy controls, using information from both T1 and T2 weighted structural MRI scans, both separately – using standard univariate VBM – and simultaneously, with multivariate analyses.

Results:

Univariate VBM replicated predominantly bilateral changes in basal ganglia and insular regions in type 2 diabetes patients. On the other hand, multivariate analyses replicated key findings of univariate results, while also revealing the thalami as additional foci of pathology.

Conclusion:

While the presented algorithm must be further optimized, the proposed toolbox is the first implementation of multivariate statistics in SPM8 as a user-friendly toolbox, which shows great potential and is ready to be validated in other clinical cohorts and modalities.

To access this article, please visit: https://benthamopen.com/ABSTRACT/TONIJ-11-32#aff1

Recently Published Article – ” Relationships of Zn Between Centella Asiatica and Geochemical Fractions of the Habitat Topsoils: Implications of Biomonitoring of Zn”

Journal: Open Biological Sciences Journal

Author(s): Chee K. YapHishamuddin OmarRosimah NulitGhim H. OngAlireza R. BakhtiariAli KaramiSalman A. Al-Shami

 

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Abstract

Background:

Present study focused on the relationships of Zn concentrations between Centella asiatica (leaves, stems and roots) and their habitat topsoils.

Methods & Materials:

For leaves, it is found that Zn levels in the leaves significantly (P< 0.05) correlated with geochemical fractions of easily, freely, leachable or exchangeable (EFLE) (R= 0.94), acid-reducible (AR) (R= 0.63), oxidisable-organic (OO) (R= 0.85), resistant (R) (R= 0.79) and summation of all four fractions (SUM) (R= 0.83). For stems, it is found that Zn levels in the stems significantly (P< 0.05) correlated with AR (R= 0.73), R (R= 0.75) and SUM (R= 0.72). For roots, it is found that Zn levels in the roots significantly (P< 0.05) correlated with EFLE (R= 0.88), AR (R= 0.65), OO (R= 0.86), R (R= 0.77) and SUM (R= 0.82).

Conclusion:

These results indicated that the three parts of C. asiatica are able to reflect the Zn concentrations in the habitat topsoils. Based on ecological risk (Er) of the habitat topsoils, all samplings sites were categorized as ‘Low potential ecological risk’ according to Hakanson classification. Based on the positive significant relationships of Zn concentrations between plant parts and geochemical fractions of their habitat topsoils, present study indicated that C. asiatica can be used as biomonitoring plant of Zn polluted topsoils.

 

To access this article, please visit: https://benthamopen.com/ABSTRACT/BIOLSCI-3-26

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