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Case Report | Bridging with Tirofiban During Temporary Withdrawal of Oral Antiplatelets for Two Major Surgical Procedures in High Ischaemic Risk Patients

Author: Antonios Ziakas 

Journal: The Open Cardiovascular Medicine Journal

Abstract

Background:

Recent coronary stent implantation requires Dual Antiplatelet Therapy (DAPT) for at least 6 months. Serious issues are raised when non-cardiac surgery is required during this period, because of the balance between ischemic and haemorrhagic complications.

Case Reports:

We report 2 high ischemic risk cases requiring intermediate bleeding risk non-cardiac surgery, during the first month of DAPT initiation. Perioperative management with discontinuation of the P2Y12 inhibitor and bridging with tirofiban, while aspirin was uninterrupted, was uneventful.

Conclusion:

Bridging with intravenous glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitors may be a safe and effective alternative to P2Y12 inhibitor discontinuation in non-deferrable non-cardiac surgery.

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The bridging protocol followed in our patients.

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https://benthamopen.com/ABSTRACT/TOCMJ-13-1

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Aims & Scope | The Open Cardiovascular Medicine Journal

The Open Cardiovascular Medicine Journal is an open access online journal which publishes research articles, reviews/mini-reviews, case studies, short communications/letters and guest edited thematic issues on the understanding of scientific advances in the field of cardiovascular medicine, written and reviewed by globally recognized experts. Manuscripts on range of topics including cardiac and circulatory system disorders, heart failure, cardiac surgery and pharmacological treatment, arrhythmias, pacing and cellular electrophysiology, atrial fibrillation, vascular and lymphatic research and other related fields are considered for publication.

The Open Cardiovascular Medicine Journal, a peer-reviewed journal, is an important and reliable source of current information on developments in the field. The emphasis will be on publishing quality papers rapidly and freely available to researchers worldwide. To learn more about the journal, please visit: https://benthamopen.com/TOCMJ/home/

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In Vitro Quantitative Resistance Components in Wheat Plants to Fusarium Head Blight

Author: Nachaat Sakr

Journal: The Open Agriculture Journal

Abstract

Background:

In vitro tools have proved to be very useful in identifying quantitative resistance in wheat to Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) infection. However, there is a need to understand how the different in vitro and in planta tests correlate to describe the level of wheat resistance to FHB infection.

Objective and Methods:

We evaluated the correlation between in vitro symptom assessment using nine quantitative resistance criteria and in planta disease severity for Type II resistance assessment using a set of 16 FHB isolates across two widely grown Syrian wheat cultivars: Cham1 (durum) and Cham6 (bread).

Results:

Cultivar differences after inoculation with fungal isolates in seedlings and adult plants relative to the controls were detected. There were significant differences in the resistance of two wheat cultivars as measured by adult FHB resistance, Latent Period (LP) of detached leaf inoculation and standardized Area Under Disease Progress Curve (AUDPCstandard) of modified Petri-dish inoculation. Correlation coefficients between FHB severity and the two in vitro components LP and AUDPCstandard were significant (r=0.545 with p<0.05, and r=0.659 with p<0.01, respectively). No significant differences in the resistance of Cham6 and Cham1 were indicated for the other seven in vitro components: incubation period and lesion length of detached leaf inoculation, germination rate reduction and coleoptile length reduction of modified Petri-dish inoculation and lesion length of clip-dipping inoculation and percentage of infected seedlings of foliar-spraying and pin-point inoculations. Results from these seven components were not correlated with adult FHB resistance. Longer latent period and less AUDPCstandard were related to greater FHB disease-type II resistance.

Conclusion:

LP and AUDPCstandard are indicators of mechanisms of resistance occurring in the whole plant during FHB infection. Therefore, the idea of using in vitro components is based on their predictive ability of in planta adult FHB resistance.

 

TOASJ-13-9_F1
Fig. (1) in planta and in vitro inoculations techniques used to assess Fusarium head blight resistance on plant materials of Syrian durum wheat cultivar Cham1 infected with F1 (F. culmorum), (a) point inoculation assay, (b) detached-leaf assay, (c) foliar-spraying assay, (d) clip-dipping assay, (e) pin-point assay and (f) modified Petri-dish assay.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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https://benthamopen.com/ABSTRACT/TOASJ-13-9

De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Profiling of Ethiopian Lowland Bamboo Oxytenanthera Abyssinica (A. rich) Munro Under Drought and Salt Stresses

Author: Muhamed Adem et al.

Journal: The Open Biotechnology Journal

Abstract

Background:

Bamboos are perennial grasses classified under family Poaceae and subfamily Bambusoideae and are among the fastest growing plants on earth. Despite ecological and economic significances, Ethiopian lowland bamboo (O. abyssinica) lacks global gene expression under abiotic stress.

Methods:

Plastic pot germinated seedlings of O. abyssinica were subjected to 200 µm NaCl and 25% PEG-6000 (Poly Ethylene glycol) to induce salt and drought stress, respectively. Using the Illumina sequencing platform, fifteen cDNA libraries were constructed and sequenced to generate the first drought and salt stress transcriptome profiling of the species so as to elucidate genome-wide transcriptome changes in response to such stresses.

Results:

Following quality control, 754,444,646 clean paired-ends reads were generated, and then de novo assembled into 406,181 unigenes. Functional annotation against the public databases presented annotation of 217,067 (53.4%) unigenes, where NCBI-Nr 203,777, Swissport 115,741, COG 81,632 and KEGG 80,587. Prediction of Transcripts Factors (TFs) have generated 4,332 TFs organized into 64 TF families. Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes (DEGs) provided 65,471 genes where 569 genes belong to all stresses. Protein families with a higher number of differentially expressed genes include bZIP (49), WRKY (43), MYB (38), AP2/ERF (30), HD-ZIP (25) and MYB related (21).

Conclusion:

In addition to revealing the genome-wide level appraisal of transcriptome resources of the species, this study also uncovered the comprehensive understanding of key stress responsive protein-coding genes, protein families and pathways which could be used as the basis for further studies.

TOBIOTJ-13-6_F1
Unigene length distribution of O. abyssinica transcriptome.

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https://benthamopen.com/ABSTRACT/TOBIOTJ-13-6

Magnetic Properties of One- and Two-Dimensional Functional Materials: Oxygen Molecules Encapsulated in Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Copper Ions Embedded into Phthalocyanine Sheets

Author: Masayuki Hagiwara et al. 

Journal: Open Chemistry Journal

Abstract

Background:

In this paper, we report on the topics of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) functional materials. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs) are seamless hollow cylinders made of hexagonal lattice graphite sheets. The SWCNTs have attracted considerable attention due to the applicability of their enclosed nanospaces to engineering, and many types of guest materials are encapsulated inside their 1D space, expecting unusual properties. The poly Transition Metal (TM) phthalocyanine, in which phthalocyanine units are extended in two dimensions by sharing benzene rings, is one of the examples of the TM containing 2D carbon materials. Because of strong correlation between localized d-electrons in the TM atom and delocalized π-electrons on the poly phthalocyanine frame, it is expected that spin-polarized conduction, which is useful for the spintronic applications.

Objectives:

The objective of the first work is to synthesize SWCNTs encapsulating oxygen molecules having spin one, whose O-O bond directions are aligned to the longitudinal direction of the SWCNTs. The objective of the second work is to synthesize Poly Cu Phthalocyanine (PCuPc) through a bottom-up method by using copper octacyanophthalocyanine as a building block and to elucidate its crystal structure and magnetic properties.

Methods:

SWCNTs with inner diameter of ca 0.8 nm were prepared by the CoMoCAT method, and encapsulated together with oxygen molecules (~400 Torr) into a high-purity quartz tube. To subtract the background signals of the SWCNTs and the quartz tube, we prepared the same SWCNTs inducing He gas after evacuating oxygen molecules. Magnetization measurements of these SWCNTs samples were conducted by means of a SQUID magnetometer and a pulse magnet using an induction method. PCuPc were synthesized by a solid state reaction of octacyanophthalocyanine, tetracyanobenzene, and CuCl2·2H2O in glass ampoules sealed after evacuation. The as-synthesized samples were characterized using XRD analysis and TEM microscopy. Magnetization measurement of the samples were done by using a SQUID magnetometer.

Results:

The intrinsic magnetization data from oxygen molecules inside the SWCNTs (temperature and magnetic field dependence) show magnetic properties typical of the spin-one Heisenberg antiferromagnet named a Haldane magnet. PCuPc and its half-filling counterpart were obtained by solid state reaction. Both magnetic susceptibility and magnetization of PCuPc are larger than those of half-filling PCuPc, but the magnitudes of the former sample are about 1.5 times larger than those of the latter one, which is expected to be twice from the geometric superlattice structure.

Conclusion:

We have studied magnetic properties (magnetic susceptibility and magnetization) of oxygen molecules encapsulated into Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs) with diameters of about 0.8 nm, regarded as a 1D functional magnetic material, and Poly Copper Phthalocyanine (PCuPc) and poly half-filling copper phthalocyanine (half-filling PCuPc), regarded as 2D functional magnetic materials.

CHEM-6-27_F1
Temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility of oxygen molecules encapsulated in SWCNTs. The solid line is the magnetic susceptibility calculated numerically for the S=1 1D Heisenberg antiferromagnet. Inset: schematic of the alignment of oxygen molecules inside SWCNTs with inner diameter of ca 0.8 nm (chiral index (6,5)).

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https://benthamopen.com/FULLTEXT/CHEM-6-27

Synthesis, Characterization of Mixed Cu(II) Pyridyl Tetrazoles and 1,10-Phenanthroline Complexes – DFT and Biological Activity

Author: Manabolu S. Babu et al.

Journal: Open Chemistry Journal

Abstract

Background:

Mixed ligand copper complexes with 1,10-phenanthroline show good chemical nuclease activity and anticancer activity. Recently, tetrazole derivatives are also promising candidates for anticancer activity. Hence, it is significant to study the DNA binding and anticancer activity of two active N-donor ligands and their copper complexes.

Objectives:

The main objective of this study was to investigate the regioisomeric mixed ligand copper complexes response with calf thymus DNA binding and anti-toxic activity against MCF-7 cell line.

Methods:

The DNA binding interactions of complexes 1-4 with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) were monitored by UV/VIS spectroscopy. The absorption spectra of the Cu complexes are compared with and without CT-DNA at 400-450 nm. The cell proliferation was measured by using the standard 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium- 5-carboxanilide (XTT) assay with four different concentrations of the compounds (5, 10, 50, and 100 mm) and cisplatin (as a positive control) was tested in triplicate for 48 h. The results obtained by the XTTassay are expressed as the average standard deviation of two experiments. The IC50 values of the complexes exhibited differential and dose-dependent inhibitory activities on the growth of MCF-7 cancer cells.

Results:

Based on the elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic moments, mass, electronic, ESR and IR spectral data, the copper is coordinated by N-atoms of 1,10- phenanthroline and pyridyl tetrazole with octahedral structure. DFT calculations of HOMO and LUMO studies showed that electron density is localized on pyridyl tetrazole ring and phenanthroline ring. The calculated DNA binding constant (Kb) values of 1-4 complexes are in the range 4.2 – 7.6 x104M-1 (Table 4) with similar binding affinity to reported copper tetrazole derivative complexes. The 1-4 complexes with CT DNA interaction are through planar phenanthroline and pyridyl tetrazole ring likely via π-stacking interactions. The IC50 values of complexes show excellent activity with 24(± 0.5); 18(± 0.5); 20(±0.5); (±0.5) and 38 (±0.8) for 1, 2, 3, 4 and cis platin complexes, respectively. After 72 h of the treatment of 1 on MCF-7 cell, IC50 values hinder the cell growth upto 24(± 0.5) µg/ml at 5 µM concentration range (Fig. 5). It is apparent from IC50 values that the order inhibition is 1 > 3 >2 > 4.

Conclusion:

Experimental results are highly encouraging to explore the mixed ligand regio isomeric copper complexes which have shown the parallel result with Cisplatin. By proper structural modification of pyridyl tetrazole ligand, substituent better anticancer agents can be prepared.

CHEM-6-1_F2
Fig. Optimized structure, HOMO and LUMO orbital of complex 1.

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https://benthamopen.com/ABSTRACT/CHEM-6-1

REVIEW ARTICLE – “Self-efficacy and Clinical Performance of Nurses Initiated and Management of Antiretroviral Therapy: Narrative Review”

Author: Nozuko Glenrose Mangi et al.

Journal: The Open Public Health Journal

Abstract

Introduction:

Self-efficacy plays a major role in the behaviour of a human being by how he/she approaches a goal, task or a challenge so that a desired level of performance is produced. The objective of this paper is to review and analyse literature on self-efficacy and clinical performance among professional nurses regarding quality of care in implementation of NIMART programme.

Methodology:

A literature review was conducted using online resources. Search engines included EBSCO, Google Scholar, Medline, PubMed, Psych info and BIOMED Central articles and journals published between 2007 and 2017. Relevant papers on self-efficacy and clinical performance regarding the implementation of NIMART programme in South Africa were analysed.

Results:

278 papers were identified and 22 eligible papers were selected for analysis. Reviewed literature exhibited that self-efficacy is very crucial in the clinical performance of nurses in the implementation of NIMART. Self-efficacy helps to predict motivation and performance of individuals. Lack of mentoring, support and exposure to clinical practice had negative effect on nurse’s self-efficacy.

Conclusion:

Given the paucity of information on self-efficacy and clinical performance of NIMART in the South African context, future studies are warranted to gain more understanding of self-efficacy in the clinical performance of professional nurses.

 

TOPHJ-12-86_F1
Papers reviewed for analysis.

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https://benthamopen.com/ABSTRACT/TOPHJ-12-86

RESEARCH ARTICLE – “Assessment of External Quality Assurance Scheme Participation Level, on Salmonella and Shigella Species”

Author: Firehiwot A. Derra et al.

Journal: The Open Microbiology Journal

Abstract

Background:

External Quality Assurance Scheme (EQAS) is the system which allows every laboratory to compare its overall performance with other internal and external existing laboratories, working in similar disciplines. Significant improvements were reported in different laboratories and countries after attending one or more of such programs. The project objective was to assess EQAS participation level in Salmonella and Shigella species that had been processed for six years under WHO-AFRO GSS EQAS program.

Methodology:

Samples received for Salmonella and Shigella species, as well as Campylobacter and other unknown enteric pathogens identification were directly inoculated to the suitable and selective media according to the type of organisms. Serogroups were reported using terms according to Kauffmann-White-Le Minor procedures. For antimicrobial susceptibility testing, drug diffusion method and CLSI interpretation guideline was used.

Results:

From the overall participation (2008-2013), serogrouping results were correctly reported as 62/ 71 (87%). None of the deviations was recorded for Shigella species. Participation for Campylobacter species was only twice per six years, in 2009 and 2010; the results of agreement with the expected values were ½ (50%) and 2/2 (100%) respectively. In line with this, the antimicrobial susceptibility participation was correctly reported as 320/356 (89.9%).

Conclusion:

Even though everyone has gained knowledge and awareness about the benefits of EQAS by default, its acceptance and implementation in developing countries are less communicated and exercised. The final recommendation will be that all higher officials and policymakers in the field have to give attention to it and allocate adequate budget on a continuous basis.

TOMICROJ-13-55_F1
Six years trends of Salmonella and Shigella serogrouping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing participation

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https://benthamopen.com/ABSTRACT/TOMICROJ-13-55

Wishing you a very Happy Birthday | Dr. Dimitri P. Mikhailidis

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Dr. Dimitri P. Mikhailidis

Editor in Chief: The Open Cardiovascular Medicine Journal

Department of Clinical Biochemistry
Royal Free Hospital Campus
University College London Medical School
London
UK

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