Tuberculosis- often known as TB is a contagious infection which is caused by a pathogen called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis mostly affects the lungs of human body, but it can also affect various other organs in the lymphatic system, circulatory system and central nervous system.
When the person gets infected with tuberculosis, the bacteria within the lungs grow faster and cause Pneumonia along with prolonged cough, chest pain and coughing with blood. According to the medical dictionary of MediLexicon, TB is “A specific disease caused by infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the tubercle bacillus, which can affect almost any tissue or organ of the body, the most common site of the disease being the lungs.”
Medications are the keystone of Tuberculosis (TB) treatment. But the treatment for tuberculosis takes much longer time than any other bacterial virus. The patients of tuberculosis can take medications and antibiotics for at least a period of seven to nine months. The duration of treatment and drugs may vary depending on your overall health, drug resistance, age and the form of infection (active or latent TB).
The recent studies propose that a three months treatment schedule along with other medications can be effective instead of nine months treatment. With a shorter treatment course, people will possibly take all their prescribed medicines thus chances of getting side effects would automatically decrease. The most common drugs for TB include; Pyrazinamide, isoniazid and Ethambutol.
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Journal: The Open Bioinformatics Journal
Author(s): Olga Montvida, Ognjen Arandjelović, Edward Reiner, Sanjoy K. Paul
Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) from primary/ ambulatory care systems present a new and promising source of information for conducting clinical and translational research.
To address the methodological and computational challenges in order to extract reliable medication information from raw data which is often complex, incomplete and erroneous. To assess whether the use of specific chaining fields of medication information may additionally improve the data quality.
Guided by a range of challenges associated with missing and internally inconsistent data, we introduce two methods for the robust extraction of patient-level medication data. First method relies on chaining fields to estimate duration of treatment (“chaining”), while second disregards chaining fields and relies on the chronology of records (“continuous”). Centricity EMR database was used to estimate treatment duration with both methods for two widely prescribed drugs among type 2 diabetes patients: insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists.
At individual patient level the “chaining” approach could identify the treatment alterations longitudinally and produced more robust estimates of treatment duration for individual drugs, while the “continuous” method was unable to capture that dynamics. At population level, both methods produced similar estimates of average treatment duration, however, notable differences were observed at individual-patient level.
The proposed algorithms explicitly identify and handle longitudinal erroneous or missing entries and estimate treatment duration with specific drug(s) of interest, which makes them a valuable tool for future EMR based clinical and pharmaco-epidemiological studies. To improve accuracy of real-world based studies, implementing chaining fields of medication information is recommended.
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Journal: The Open Family Studies Journal
Author(s): Elizabeth A Munz
The aim of this study on the transition to grandparenthood is to capture grandparents’ perspectives on their relationship and communication with their adult children when their adult children was expecting their first child or became new parents within the past year. More specifically, the study aimed to uncover 1) Intergenerational issues identified by grandparents during the transition to grandparenthood and 2) Factors influencing grandparents’ communication and relationships with their adult children during this time of family transition.
Participants were 19 grandparents in the U.S., 15 grandmothers and 4 grandfathers who were about to welcome the first child of one of their children (N = 8), who had welcomed the first child of one of their children in the past year (N = 10), or who had both a child who was expecting and a child who had welcomed their first child within the past year (N = 1). Qualitative data analysis was conducted on transcripts from the grandparent interviews utilizing the constant comparative technique and thematic analysis to identify categories and emergent themes.
Grandparent participants shared their perspectives on the intergenerational transmission of parenting practices, reflected on changes in parental roles over time, and identified communication facilitator and barriers during this time of transition. These categories and emergent themes are explicated in the results section along with supporting excerpts from grandparent interviews.
The transition to grandparenthood impacts communication and relationships between grandparents and their adult children by shaping the content, frequency, and medium of communication. Understanding grandparents’ perspectives on this time of transition adds to existing research on families focused mainly on the adult child’s perspective.
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Author(s): Renato Cicchetti, Francesco D’Agostino, Flaminio Ferrara, Claudio Gennarelli, Rocco Guerriero, Massimo Migliozzi
This paper provides the experimental validation of an efficient iterative procedure to correct known position errors in a spherical near to far-field (NTFF) transformation for elongated antennas which uses a minimum number of NF measurements.
This transformation exploits a non-redundant sampling representation of the voltage detected by the probe obtained by shaping a long antenna with a prolate ellipsoid. The uniform samples, those at the points set by the representation, are accurately reconstructed from the acquired not regularly distributed (non-uniform) ones by using an iterative scheme, which requires a one to one relationship between each uniform sampling point and the corresponding non-uniform one. Then a 2-D optimal sampling formula is adopted to evaluate the input data needed to perform the traditional spherical NTFF transformation from the retrieved non-redundant uniform samples.
Finally, laboratory proofs have been reported to demonstrate the validity of the presented technique from a practical viewpoint.
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Author(s): Shuo Fan, Qianjian Guo
In precision machining, thermal error is the main source of machine tool error. And thermal error compensation is an effective method to reduce thermal error.
In order to improve the prediction accuracy and computational efficiency of thermal error model, a new optimization method used for the selection of temperature measurement point is proposed.
This method is based on stepwise regression. According to the results of partial-F statistic, new variable is selected one by one, unapparent variables are deleted, and optimization selection of temperature measurement point is fulfilled, thermal error model of the NC machine tool is presented.
The new modeling method was used on NC machine tool, which reduced the temperature point number from 24 to 5. Moreover, model residual was less than 5µm after compensation.
The result shows that the new thermal error model has higher prediction accuracy and less temperature variables.
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Journal: The Open Microbiology Journal
Author(s): Rasha Barwa, Mona Shaaban
Emergence of carbapenems-resistant K. pneumoniae represents a serious challenge for antimicrobial therapy.
The aim of this research is to determine different mechanisms mediating the emergence of K. pneumoniae isolates with high-level carbapenem resistance.
A total of 80 K. pneumoniae isolates were purified from sputum and urine specimens. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of imipenem and meropenem were determined by broth microdilution method. Carbapenemases were detected by Modified Hodge test and PCR. Additionally, the copy numbers of the identified genes (blaVIM-1, blaNDM-1and blaOXA-48) were quantified by RT-PCR. The outer membrane proteins OmpK35 and OmpK36 of the resistant isolates were analyzed.
Eight isolates were resistant to carbapenems; six of these isolates possessed elevated MICs to imipenem and meropenem (≥16 µg/ml). Carbapenem resistant isolates harbored blaNDM-1 (n=5), blaVIM-1 (n=4) and blaOXA-48 (n=1) with some isolates had multiple carbapenemases genes. Six isolates with high MICs to imipenem contained multi-copies of the carbapenemases genes along with the lack of OmpK35. Isolates with intermediate resistance to carbapenems (MIC; 4-8 µg/ml) did not exhibit multiple carbapenemases but lacked the OmpK35. Random amplified polymorphic DNA exhibited three different patterns and indicated that five isolates encoded the same pattern P1.
This study elucidated that multiple carbapenemases genes, high copy number of carbapenemases and loss of the porin OmpK35 could collectively contribute to the emergence of K. pneumoniae isolates with high resistance to carbapenems. Hence, more restrictions should be applied on the use of carbapenems to reduce the emergence of the resistant clones.
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Journal: The Open Materials Science Journal
Author(s): Yan-Hua Cai, Qian Zheng, Wen-Jiang Guo
To develop more green polymer composites and further know the performance of green composites, the composites based on green poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and starch were fabricated by a counter-rotating mixer. And effect of starch on the fluidity and nucleating performance of PLLA was investigated using melt index instrument, optical depolarizer and wide angle X-ray diffraction instrument, respectively.
Method and Conclusion:
The fluidity of PLLA/starch composites showed that, compared to the neat PLLA, the addition of starch made the fluidity of PLLA increase significantly and the melt mass flow rate of PLLA/5%starch sample had the maximum value 13.36 g/10min. In addition, the introduction of starch could also increase the crystallization rate of PLLA through isothermal crystallization measurement and x-ray diffraction analysis, the maximum value of crystallization rate of PLLA/starch composites appeared in low crystallization temperature zone, and 10 wt% starch could make the t1/2 of PLLA decrease from 3999.4s to 421.4s.
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