Bentham Open

Opening Access to Science

World Alzheimer’s Day 2017!


World Alzheimer’s Day is an international campaign held every year on the 21st of September, to raise awareness about this disease. Alzheimer is a neurological disorder in which patients experience a cognitive decline and memory loss.

Find the latest studies from the following Bentham Open journal:

The Open Neurology Journal



Press Release for EurekAlert! Coronary artery disease in patients undergoing coronary angiography

This research article by Dr. Amin Daoulah et al. has been published in The Open Cardiovascular Medicine Journal, Volume 11, 2017

Historically, from the 1930’s to the 1950’s, the rate of cardiovascular disease in high-income countries was high. Since the mid-1970’s, the rate of cardiovascular disease has declined in high income countries, possibly due to socioeconomic inequalities and better management of risk factors for coronary heart disease among the wealthy.

We conducted a prospective, multicenter, multiethnic, observation study of consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography at five hospitals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. Our study demonstrates an association between higher income and higher risk for significant coronary artery disease (CAD) and multivessel disease. We speculate that this finding can be explained by poor lifestyle practices in the Gulf region (physical inactivity, sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy diet, tobacco use) and highly stressful events related to work and daily activities in life. Previous studies among men linking stress-related health risks with substantial losses in income and wealth help support our speculation. In addition, people living in rural areas and those who are jobless had a higher risk of significant coronary artery disease and multivessel disease, which is in agreement with previous studies.

Our current study failed to show an association between education level and risk of coronary artery disease. This could be explained by a large number of illiterate patients (50%) and those who had secondary education (35%) and this does not reflect all education levels.

The well-accepted socioeconomic-CAD gradient might not be applicable to all regions of the world. We suggest that the interpretation of socioeconomic status should take into account the differences in risk factors among different ethnicities and cultural differences in individual lifestyles from the same socioeconomic status. Broader studies are needed to explore this association that is in contradiction to what has been previously reported of the link between coronary vascular disease and lower socioeconomic standing.

For more information about the article, please visit

Thought of the Day!



Recently Published Article – “Comparison of Two Coal-Gasifier-Designs with Moving-Bed and Internal-Circulating-Fluidized-Bed Configuration in One Reactor”

Journal: The Open Fuels & Energy Science Journal

Author(s): Martin SchurzAlexander LaugwitzSteffen KrzackBernd Meyer




Coal gasification is the promising technology for syngas routes to produce chemicals or transportation fuels. Additionally, it enables clean power generation from coal in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC). So far, coal fines with high ash contents could not be feasibly used in such routes.

In this regard, the Internal Circulation gasifier (INCI) is designed to gasify high-ash coal fines efficiently. The staged system is combining a moving bed, a fluidized bed and a jetting fluidized bed in one reaction chamber.


The present paper substantially describes the laboratory-scale prototype development in the COORVED-project (“CO2-reduction by innovative gasifier design”) based on the INCI gasification principle of about 50-125 kW thermal input. Information about the gasifiers compounding, especially the reaction chamber, peripheral components and applied measurement systems are given.


Experimental results are presented, confirming the targeted, typical flow pattern inside the reaction chamber. Furthermore technical and operational limits of the COORVED prefiguration are discussed. Based on these results a major design change of the reaction chamber is required and explained in detail. Additionally, results of the feedstock variation from coke to lignite are shown.


Finally, the operability of the INCI gasification principle is proven by a stationary operating system with controlled ash agglomeration.

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Recently Published Article – “Numerical and Analytical Modeling for Predicting Drag Load Induced on Pile in Collapsible Soil because of Inundation”

Journal: The Open Civil Engineering Journal

Author(s): Sarah Tahsin Noor




Negative skin friction that develops on the pile surface when the soil (adjacent to the pile shaft) settles but the pile is in static condition, causes an additional load (known as drag load) induced on pile. Substantial settlement of collapsible soil occurs only because of inundation. In such a case, the magnitude of drag load is influenced by several parameters, such as the collapse potential, inundation pressure, pile roughness, pile diameter, radius of wetting, depth to the neutral plane, and thickness of collapsible soil subjected to inundation.


A numerical model is developed to simulate the case of a single pile in collapsible soil to predict negative skin friction and drag load by giving consideration to kinetic friction angle between the pile and the settling soil. The comprehensive interdependent relation among the parameters influencing the magnitude of drag load was revealed based on numerical results. Analytical models are developed for predicting the average negative skin friction and depth of neutral plane to quantify drag load because of the inundation of collapsible soil adjacent to the pile shaft.

Result and Conclusion:

The model coefficients were determined by analyzing the numerical results. The drag loads obtained from the analytical model developed and those from previous experimental studies are found in good agreement. For a given soil profile, the magnitude of drag load is found to vary widely (e.g., between 252 and 925 kN) because of the variations in the pile diameter, pile roughness, and radius of wetting. Thus, this study provides a design guideline for choosing the design pile diameter considering the magnitude of drag load due to inundation of collapsible soil adjacent to the pile shaft.

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Blog ::: Assessing Meat Quality of Baladi Cattle

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There are many different species of cattle throughout the world that are bred for their different traits and uses. Some are good for meat, some for dairy or both. Hence different species are farmed mainly for the utilities they have. Following this idea, the cattle farming industry in the southern Mediterranean region has been replacing the native breed of cattle, called Baladi cattle, with other European breeds. The breeds replacing Baladi are known to have better meat and dairy quality. While the Baladi breed is popular for its adaptiveness to the tough climate in southern Mediterranean. It is also a stronger breed in terms of disease resistance.

To protect the Baladi cattle from replacement, the researchers in Beef Cattle Section, Newe-Ya’ar Research Center, Agricultural Research Organization, Israel, have conducted research on the meat quality of this species. They compare the genotypic polymorphism in Baladi with four other species, namely, Limousine, Holstein, Simmental and Brahman cattle. All these other cattle breeds are farmed for their meat, dairy or a combination of both utilities. The results of genotypic study were quite encouraging for Baladi breed. With the physical and visible traits yet to be researched, this very study can be a helpful step in promoting farming of this breed.

The research and its outcomes are presented in the following open access article: Detection of Allelic and Genotypic Frequencies of Polymorphisms Associated with Meat Quality in the Mediterranean Baladi Cattle

Upcoming Thematic Issue – Current Concepts in Elbow Trauma


Recently Published Article – “Changes in Seasonality Index Over Sub-Divisions of India During 1951-2015”

Journal: The Open Atmospheric Science Journal

 Author(s): S.S. NandargiS.S. MahtoS. Ram




The varied topographical features of the Indian region are responsible for variation in distribution of rainfall over different parts of the country. More than 80% of the country’s rainfall is received during the monsoon season. Researchers noted that there is change in distribution of this monsoon rainfall associated with climate change and global warming. This changing pattern in rainfall can be investigated by seasonality index (SI) of rainfall. Such studies are essential to identify the changes in runoff, infiltration, surface and groundwater management, agricultural planning, etc.


The variation in seasonality in rainfall over the Indian region is examined using monthly rainfall values for the period 1951 to 2015 of 34 meteorological sub-divisions excluding two Sea Islands. A seasonality index (SI) of a monthly rainfall is computed on monthly, seasonal (June to September) and annual scale. It is observed that seasonality index of rainfall of 34 sub-divisions for all months are in the range 0.37 (Jammu & Kashmir) to 1.56 (Saurashtra Kutch & Diu).


The results show that rainfall is markedly seasonal with a long dry season and most rainfall in less than three months. Most of the rainfall occurs in monsoon months. The seasonality index for monsoon season is computed and it varies from 0.19 (Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram,Tripura) to 0.59 (Saurashtra Kutch & Diu) resulting in rainfall spread throughout the year, but with a definite wetter season.


Trends of this index through the 65-year period are identified and indicate that seasonality is increasing in Uttaranchal, Himachal Pradesh, Gujarat Region-Dadra & Nagar Haveli; Saurashtra-Kutch & Diu, Konkan & Goa, Madhya Maharashtra, Marathwada, Chattisgarh, Tamilnadu & Pondicherry. The analysis clearly showed the climate change impact on northwest sub-divisions of the country showing increase in SI values leading to dryness during the monsoon season. The negative trend in SI values was observed in Sub- Himalayan West Bengal, Haryana-Delhi-Chandigarh, Punjab, Jammu & Kashmir, West and east Rajasthan, coastal Andhra Pradesh showing increasing wetness for an already wet months although rainfall occurs in a very short period of just a month or two.

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