Journal: The Open Ornithology Journal
Author(s): Thomas Arndt, Michael Wink
The relationships within the Pyrrhura species complex are partly unresolved. In this study, a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the Pyrrhura picta-leucotis complex was carried out, covering all species except P. subandina.
Material and Methods:
We made a morphological analysis of 745 preserved specimens of all the taxa in different museums. Nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome gene were generated and used to reconstruct a molecular phylogeny of Pyrrhura.
Results and Discussion:
Our results show that the complex is divided into 6 main groups comprising 15 species. P. dilutissima, regarded up to now as a subspecies of P. peruviana, acquires species status and three new subspecies are described. We also provide evidence that P. roseifrons is a paraphyletic group, indicating the existence of probably 3 lineages of which 2 deserve species status.
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Author(s): Munther Alshakhs, Reza Rezaee
There is an increasing interest in the Goldwyer Formation of the Canning Basin as a potentially prospective shale play. This Ordovician shaly formation is one of the most prominent source rocks in the Canning Basin. One key property to evaluate the prospectivity of any shale oil or gas is its total organic carbon (TOC) richness.
This study investigates different TOC estimation techniques and validates the reliability of each, aiming to provide a best estimating approach for local and global applications.
The limited well distribution in the large area of the Canning Basin makes a basin-wide study not warranted at this stage. A focused look into the Barbwire Terrace was carried out instead. General TOC estimation methods, such as Schmoker and ∆logR were employed for TOC calculation. TOC relationships of single and multivariate regressions were also derived from wireline data and TOC rock sample measurements.
Both Schmoker and ∆logR methods tend to overestimate TOC when compared to the available Rock-Eval pyrolysis TOC measurements. The regression approach have shown to provide the best TOC estiamtes for wells in the Barbwire Terrace, where the best multiple regression approach for the terrace and global application was found to be the one derived from gamma-ray (GR), bulk density (RHOB), and sonic log transit time (DT).
The generalized nature of the Schmoker method, as it provides a global relationship between density and TOC is probably the main reason why this approach does not provide a good fit in the case of the Goldwyer Formation. Furthermore, the uncertainty associated with the ∆logR method factors, such as the level of maturity (LOM), and resistivity and sonic baselines greatly influence the TOC estimation in this method, and hence, sometimes do not merit a reliable TOC estimation. The multiple regression approach have shown to be most accurate once lithology and compaction information (GR, RHOB, and DT) were incorporated in the regression process. TOC was reliably estimated for wells inside and outside the Barbwire Terrace, and also for wells of a global lacustrine shale. Such derivation have provided a more accurate technical assessment of the shale play and its prospectivity as a potential unconventional hydrocarbon resource.
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Author(s): I. Feinkohl, G. Winterer, T. Pischon
Post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) occurs frequently after major surgery. Hypertension is well-established as a risk factor for age-related cognitive impairment, but it is unclear whether or not it also increases the risk of POCD.
To evaluate the role of hypertension in POCD risk in a systematic review and meta-analysis.
PubMed, Ovid SP and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched for longitudinal studies of adults undergoing surgery with reporting of hypertension, blood pressure and/or anti-hypertensive treatment associations with POCD as relative risks or odds ratios. Fixed-effects meta-analyses were performed using Review Manager (version 5.3).
Twenty-four studies on 4317 patients (mean age 63 years) were included. None of the studies had set out to assess hypertension as a risk factor for POCD. Hypertension was used as a categorical predictor throughout and only 2 studies adjusted for potential confounders. Across all 24 studies, hypertension was not significantly associated with POCD risk (RR 1.01; 95% CI 0.93, 1.09; p=0.82), though among 8 studies with >75% males, we found hypertension associations with a 27% increased risk of POCD (RR 1.27, 95% CI 1.07, 1.49; p=0.005).
Our findings do not support the hypothesis that hypertension is a risk factor for POCD. However, since none of the studies included in our analysis were hypothesis-driven and most did not adjust for potential confounders, further systematic investigations are needed to evaluate the role of hypertension in the epidemiology of POCD.
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World Sickle Cell Disease Day is held annually on 19th June, in order to help increase public knowledge and raise awareness of Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) and the struggles sufferers and their families go through. SCD affects millions of people around the world, including both adults and children. It is a potentially fatal disease and is one of the main causes of premature death amongst children under the age of five in various African countries.
Bentham Open Publishers is in the forefront in creating awareness about Sickle Cell Diseases.
Journal: The Open Orthopaedics Journal
Author(s): Sarkhell Radha, Michael Shenouda, Sujith Konan, Jonathon Lavelle, Samuel Church
The patella is the largest sesamoid bone in the body and may have one (77%) or multiple (23%) ossification centres. Patellar and patellofemoral joint abnormalities are a common cause of anterior knee pain but symptomatic bipartite patella is an uncommon problem.
We report a series of six cases of painful synchondrosis in bipartite patellae, all in keen athletes following a direct blow to the anterior aspect of the knee. A complete rupture of the synchondrosis with evidence of retropatellar chondral separation was seen on MRI scan in all cases. Successful surgical fixation was undertaken with complete resolution of symptoms in all patients at an average of three months post-operatively.
Painful synchondrosis of a bipartite patella in young and active individuals following direct trauma is a relatively rare cause of anterior knee pain, but may be associated with significant morbidity. In cases refractory to non-operative management, successful symptomatic treatment can be achieved by operative fixation.
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Every year, on 14 June, countries around the world celebrate World Blood Donor Day. The event serves to raise awareness of the need for safe blood and blood products and to thank blood donors for their life-saving gifts of blood. Blood is an important resource, both for planned treatments and urgent interventions. It can help patients suffering from life-threatening conditions live longer and with a higher quality of life, and supports complex medical and surgical procedures.
Journal: The Open Psychology Journal
Author(s): Ilaria Castelli, Davide Massaro, Alan G. Sanfey, Antonella Marchetti
Decision making is a complex psychological process driven by emotions. Among the most unpleasant ones are the situations when the obtained outcome is not the one expected. This emotional experience is influenced by sense of agency, i.e. the feeling that we voluntarily control our actions and, through them, events in the world. Negative counterfactual emotions as disappointment have been marginally analyzed in children’s decision-making, and the study of children’s sense of agency could help to understand them.
To evaluate during childhood the valence of disappointment in decision making in relation to the possibility of choosing or not.
107 children (age range 7-10 years) rated their emotions before and after discovering the outcome, in two experimental conditions: choice condition, where the child could decide which of the two remaining tickets to choose in order to win some candies, and no choice condition, where the child could not decide as only one ticket was left.
The self-attribution of a positive emotional state was significantly higher in the choice condition than in the no choice condition, so the possibility to pick up the ticket made children happier in general, by promoting an “illusion of control”, which is absent in the no choice condition. Then, after discovering the bad outcome, the emotions collapse, settling at substantially similar values.
Children have experienced a sense of agency for their choice, thus leading to an illusion of control for the decision process and to the so-called “wishful thinking”.
To access this article, please visit: https://benthamopen.com/ABSTRACT/TOPSYJ-10-55