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Modifications of Midfacial Soft-Tissue Thickness Among Different Skeletal Classes in Italian Children

Author: Daniele Gibelli

Abstract

Background:

The anatomical assessment of the arrangement of facial soft tissues has important applications in different fields from orthodontics to plastic surgery. One of the issues concerns the relationship between facial soft tissue thickness and skeletal class. Literature mainly deals with adult populations, whereas very few studies have been focused on children.

Objective:

This study aims at investigating the relationship between midline facial soft tissue thickness and skeletal classes in Italian pre-treatment orthodontic child patients.

Methods:

Lateral cephalometric X-ray films were obtained from 220 healthy Caucasoid children (91 males and 129 females), aged between 6 and 18 years (Class I: 41 males and 70 females; Class II: 18 males and 25 females; Class III: 32 males and 34 females). All the films were digitized and 14 soft tissue thicknesses were measured on the midface; in addition, the skeletal class was assessed according to the corrected ANB angle (ANBc). Differences in facial soft tissue thickness according to sex and skeletal class were assessed through two-way ANOVA test (p<0.01).

Results:

Statistically significant differences according to sex were found for labrale superius, stomion and labrale inferius, with thicker soft tissues in males than in females (p<0.01). Only measurements at labrale superius and gnathion showed statistically significant differences according to skeletal class, with thicker soft tissues in Class III children and thinner ones in Class II children (p<0.01).

Conclusion:

The limited number of investigations, as well as the differences in protocols, renders the comparison of results from different studies difficult, suggesting further investigations to enlighten this complex and debated anatomical issue.

TOMIJ-10-1_F1

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First Molecular Identification of Symbiotic Archaea in a Sponge Collected from the Persian Gulf, Iran

Author: Akram Najafi

Abstract

Background:

Marine sponges are associated with numerically vast and phylogenetically diverse microbial communities at different geographical locations. However, little is known about the archaeal diversity of sponges in the Persian Gulf. The present study was aimed to identify the symbiotic archaea with a sponge species gathered from the Persian Gulf, Iran.

Methods:

Sponge sample was collected from a depth of 3 m offshore Bushehr, Persian Gulf, Iran. Metagenomic DNA was extracted using a hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) method. The COI mtDNA marker was used for molecular taxonomy identification of sponge sample. Also, symbiotic archaea were identified using the culture-independent analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and PCR- cloning.

Results:

In this study, analysis of multilocus DNA marker and morphological characteristics revealed that the sponge species belonged to Chondrilla australiensis isolate PG_BU4. PCR cloning and sequencing showed that all of the sequences of archaeal 16S rRNA gene libraries clustered into the uncultured archaeal group.

Conclusion:

The present study is the first report of the presence of the genus of Chondrilla in the Persian Gulf. Traditional taxonomy methods, when used along with molecular techniques, could play a significant role in the accurate taxonomy of sponges. Also, the uncultured archaea may promise a potential source for bioactive compounds. Further functional studies are needed to explore the role of the sponge-associated uncultured archaea as a part of the marine symbiosis.

TOMICROJ-12-323_F2
Light micrograph of Chondrilla australiensis skeleton. A) Ectosomal skeleton (scale bar 100 μm), B) Choanosomal skeleton (scale bar 100 μm), C) Spheraster (scale bar 10 μm), D) Speroxyaster (scale bar 10 μm)

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Assessment of Bonding Effectiveness of Adhesive Materials to Tooth Structure using Bond Strength Test Methods: A Review of Literature

Author: Aminah M. El Mourad

Abstract

Background:

The rapid developments in the field of adhesive dental materials have led to improvements in many aspects of clinical dentistry. Adhesive bond strength plays an important role in determining the clinical performance and longevity of dental restorations. Nevertheless, bond strength tests have never been well-standardized, although a number of important recommendations have been made.

Objective:

The aim of this paper is to critically review the validity of different bond strength testing methods for assessment of bonding effectiveness of adhesive materials to tooth structure and discuss factors that may affect bond strength measurement.

Data Collection:

Relevant literature published between 1983 and 2018 was collected and reviewed from the PubMed database and Google scholar resources.

Review Results:

Results of the current bond testing methods should be used to compare materials tested under the same laboratory settings, but they shouldn’t be used to make direct inferences on their clinical behaviour. Shear and micro-shear tests, result in non-uniform stress distribution, stress concentration at the substrate area, and predominantly tensile stresses rather than shear stresses. Micro-tensile bond tests provide many advantages over the shear tests, although these methods are technique sensitive and labour intensive.

Conclusion:

Bond strength testing methods should be well-standardized, but there are many factors that cannot be fully controlled which leads to variation and misinterpretation of the data about the bonding abilities of adhesives.

Clinical Significance:

New adhesive materials should be subjected to a combination of testing protocols to properly assess their bonding effectiveness.

TODENTJ-12-664_F1

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World Food Day 2018!

world-food-day-banner-bentham-open

World Food Day 16 October 2018. World Food Dais a day of action dedicated to tackling global hunger. Held annually on 16th October, people from around the world come together to declare their commitment to eradicate worldwide hunger from our lifetime.

Exosome Biogenesis and Biological Function in Response to Viral Infections

Author: Brennetta J. Crenshaw

Journal: The Open Virology Journal

Capture 1

TOVJ-12-134_F1
Proposed mechanisms of exosome secretion and HIV-1 interaction. Exosomes can be secreted by means of a constitutive or regulated pathway. Exosomes can bind to HIV-1 via TIM-4, CD9, and/or CD81. This binding can facilitate exosome-mediated entry into CD4+ or CD4- cells. HIV-1 binds to exosomes released from the ‘donor’ cell and is shuttled to the ‘recipient’ cell.

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Variation in the Dispersions of Powder Liquid Ratios in Hand-Mix Glass Ionomers

Author: Riaan Mulder

Journal: The Open Dentistry Journal

Abstract

Background:

The Powder/Liquid Ratio (PLR) influence, and the literature regarding the handling and physical properties of Glass Ionomer restorative materials (GIC) were investigated.

Objective:

The objective of the study was to compare the PLR variability and magnitude in hand-mix GICs, as dispensed for clinical use. From the recorded individual powder and liquid weights, additional comparisons could be made by pairing the various “extreme” outer observations in relation to the manufacturer’s PLR.

Study Design:

The materials assessed were Ketac Universal Hand-mix (KUH), Riva Self Cure Hand-mix (RSCH) and Fuji IX GP Hand-mix (FIXH). Twenty scoops of powder were paired with twenty drops of liquid, as would be the case in the clinical scenario. Statistical analysis was completed with the Kruskal Wallis H test, Intraclass Correlation (ICC) and straight line regressions with One-way ANOVA and the post-hoc Tukey HSD Test (p<0.05 was considered significant).

Results:

The powder and liquid observations indicate a lack of consistency in both the powder and liquid dispersions. The volume remained “one drop” but the weights were much lower than the manufacturer’s recommended drop weight for some observations, due to air in the liquid drop. The Kruskal-Wallis H test indicated significant differences (p=0.0001) between the three materials for the paired PLRs. The One-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey HSD Test were used to compare the recommended PLR to the results and the significant differences (p<0.01).

Conclusion:

The recommended manufacturers’ powder and liquid weights were KUH 0.150/0.05g; RSC 0.165/0.035; FIXH 0.18/0.05, respectively. KUH, FIXH and RSCH liquid had powder and liquid dispersions above the manufacturer’s recommendations. FIXH had the most paired PLR observations within the ±10% range followed by KUH. Extreme powder and liquid combinations could occur in the clinical scenario and these combinations were considered.

TODENTJ-12-647_F1

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World Arthritis Day 2018!

World-Arthritis-Day-bentham-science-text-banner-2

World Arthritis Day 2018 is observed on October 12. This day is exclusively meant to raise awareness about arthritis, a condition which affects millions of people across the world. Arthritis is an inflammatory condition which causes pain and stiffness in joints which can worsen with age. The condition is such that it can affect day-to-day functioning of people. On World Arthritis Day, the idea is to raise awareness about arthritis and how it affects lives of people who suffer from it.

World Arthritis Day 2018!

World-Arthritis-Day-bentham-open-banner-1

World Arthritis Day 2018 is observed on October 12. This day is exclusively meant to raise awareness about arthritis, a condition which affects millions of people across the world. Arthritis is an inflammatory condition which causes pain and stiffness in joints which can worsen with age. The condition is such that it can affect day-to-day functioning of people. On World Arthritis Day, the idea is to raise awareness about arthritis and how it affects lives of people who suffer from it.

The IG- file use to Gauge the Apical Diameter in Endodontics: An In Vitro Study

Author: Massimo Amato

Journal: The Open Dentistry Journal

Abstract

Aim:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the IG-file, a new instrument designed for apical diameter gauging.

Materials and Methods:

After shaping with F1 Universal Protaper, 60 roots were randomly divided into two groups and assigned to two operators, One Expert in Endodontics (EO) and One Unexpert (UO).

In each sample, after canal curvatures have been detected, the apical diameters were measured with the IG-file and the K-NiTi. The results were compared with the reference value obtained by retrograde apical gauging. The data were statistically analyzed.

Results:

Among 60 samples, 10% of errors were recorded when the IG-files were used; in the K-NiTi group the incorrect measurements were 70%.

In both groups (expert and unexpert) the IG-file measurements were more accurate than the K-NiTi (90 vs 33 and 90 vs26,7). The differences were statistically significant.

In curved canals, the difference between measurement rates performed with both instruments was statistically significant (85,7% IG-file vs 28,6% K-NiTi) as well as for the samples without curvatures (92,3% IG file vs 30,8% NiTi file).

In root canals without curvatures overestimation errors in K-NiTi file group are more frequent than underestimation errors. This difference was statistically significant.

Conclusion:

A proper gauging of the apical diameter has a key role in endodontic therapy; an incorrect measurement can lead to clinical failures. This “in vitro” study highlights that IG-file improves measurement accuracy independently from clinician experience. Furthermore, in curved canals, the IG-file is more accurate than K-NiTi.

TODENTJ-12-638_F1
IG-file a) ISO diameters from 20 to 40 b) Instrument characteristics (SEM analysis)

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https://benthamopen.com/ABSTRACT/TODENTJ-12-638

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