Author: Ghassan K. Al-Chaar
Author: Ghassan K. Al-Chaar
Author: Sara Muñoz
Journal: The Open Parasitology Journal
We present a study about helminth parasites in wolf (Canis lupus signatus) from Sierra de la Culebra, a protected area in the Northwest of Spain, where is the largest population of wolves of the Spanish territory and one of the largest in Western Europe.
To this aim, 93 fecal samples were collected during May and June of 2013 using 33% zinc sulphate flotation technique and classified based on their morphology, color, structure and size.
Parasites were present in 66.67% of the samples and classified as Eucoleus aerophilus (50.54%), Strongyloides sp. (27%), Ancylostomidae gen. sp. (19.35%), Toxocara Canis (10.75%), Taeniidae gen. sp. (9.68%), Trichuris vulpis (9.68%) and Toxascaris leonina (2.15%). Their distributions were very heterogeneous with the highest prevalence being in Northwest Spain. These differences found can be attributed to local environmental factors (ambient temperature, humidity) as well as animal feeding and social behavior.
A wide helminthofauna is observed in the studied wolves, similar to other studies carried out in Europe (Estonia, Finland, Italy, Latvia, Poland, Portugal, Spain and Sweden). In addition, this study constitutes the first description of the presence of Strongyloides sp. in Iberian wolf in Spain.
Author: Moeen Hosseini Shirazi
Journal: The Open Dentistry Journal
Implant placement with more than 25° angle and use of customized abutments are still challenging in implant dentistry. Also, casting is still the most commonly used method for fabrication of customized abutments.
This study evaluated the effect of angulation and type of abutment (castable and cast-to) on torque loss and fracture resistance after cyclic loading.
Two implants were mounted with 0 and 30° angle on a gypsum model. Castable and Cast-to abutments were casted by cobalt-chromium alloy on each implant (10 samples in 4 groups). Rotational freedom was measured by a video-measuring microscope. The reverse torque values before and after cyclic loading (500,000 cycles) were measured by a digital torque-meter. Abutments were subjected to fracture resistance test in a universal testing machine. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal Wallis, two-way ANOVA and repeated measures tests.
Difference between castable and cast-to abutments regarding rotational freedom was not significant. Torque loss in castable abutments was significantly greater than cast-to abutments before and after cyclic loading (P < 0.05). The effect of abutment angle on torque loss before and after cyclic loading was not significant.
Irrespective of the abutment angle, torque loss was significantly higher in castable groups. Considering the high fracture resistance, abutment fractures were not clinically an issue.
The article by Marwan El Ghoch et al. is published in The Open Nutrition Journal Volume 12, 2018
A new condition, that occurs in the presence of both sarcopenia and obesity and termed as “sarcopenic obesity”, and that describes under the same phenotype the increase in body fat mass deposition, and the reduction in lean mass and muscle strength.
Recently, Professor Marwan El Ghoch from the Department of Nutrition & Dieitics at Beirut Arab University – Lebanon, in a short communication recently published in The Open Nutrition Journal highlighted that many uncertainties still surround the condition of sarcopenic obesity in terms of definition, adverse health effects and clinical management via three important questions:
1) What is the definition of sarcopenic obesity?
2) Is sarcopenic obesity harmful to health?
3) Is this condition worth treating?
In this direction he suggested a flow chart regard the best approach to the study the sarcopenic obesity, and emphasized some crucial aspects that future research should take into account in order to avoid bias and misinterpretations.
Finally Professor El Ghoch, concluded by underlining that the study of sarcopenic obesity should be considered a scientific and clinical priority, as reported by two important bodies: the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) and the European Association for the Study of Obesity (EASO)
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Red bone marrow develops early in life and converts into yellow bone marrow with aging. Reconversion occurs when yellow bone marrow reconverts into red bone marrow due to increased oxygen demands.
Diffuse appearance of red bone marrow on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is rarely encountered.
Seven patients, five male and two female, with the diffuse appearance of red bone marrow were evaluated. The average age was 71.4 (47-86) years old. All patients had been referred based on a working diagnosis of cancer metastasis. All patients were eventually rediagnosed with bone marrow reconversion.
Spinal MRI was evaluated in all patients, including the whole spine in four patients and lumbar spine in three patients. Six patients had slight anemia or close to the lower limit of normal hemoglobin (within 1mg/dl). Six patients were heavy smokers, having more than 20 cigarettes per day. Four patients had a history of stomach or bladder cancer (2 cases each). MRI revealed red bone marrow with a diffuse appearance and low signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted images. Compared with the spinal cord/conus, the red bone marrow appeared isointense in about half of the cases, and in the other cases, the intensities were either slightly high or low. The signal of yellow bone marrow was isointense with the retroperitoneal fat.
Diffuse red marrow can be difficult to differentiate from cancer metastasis. Compared to the MRI, signal intensity of the cord/conus is useful in the diagnosis of red marrow. Slight anemia may also be present. Heavy smoking might be related to the appearance of diffuse red marrow.
The purpose of this study was to investigate how differently various form factors of subunits of shock absorption mat attenuate force from the elderly’s fall.
The study procedures were the following: (1) literature review: possible form factors affecting the shock absorbing capacity were analyzed and synthesized from the review; (2) synthesis of design criteria: criteria for force simulation were formulated based on the information from the review; and (3) simulation: simulation of force from elderly’s fall absorbed by such mats with the following control and independent variables that were analyzed and synthesized in the previous steps: (control variables): 1) impact force, 2) physical properties of the rubber material; (independent variables): 1) form of cross-section, 2) form of edges, 3) pattern of arrangement of subunits in the structural layer, and 4) dimensional proportion of subunits.
The simulation results show that the subunits with a circular-cross-section and hourglass-like-edge form factors were the best at attenuating impact force. The best pattern of subunit arrangement was a table arrangement. This study was a preliminary study to a design of subunits of shock absorption mat. The results would be used in the next, more comprehensive study.